The WAVE Lab Goes Virtual

Who better to work virtually than a group of researchers who study technology at work? This week the WAVE Lab put the “V” in WAVE while practicing social distancing for our weekly meeting. We are currently hard at work wrapping up several projects and beginning to explore the organizational effects of COVID-19. In the meantime, we hope all our readers stay safe and well.


WebEx Screenshot from the March 30 WAVE Lab meeting. From top left: Dan Ravid, Dave Tomczak, Ahleah Miles, Peter Mancarella, Brad Pitcher, Jerod White, Michael Rodriguez, Noa Leiter, Valerie Guo, Tara Behrend

WAVE Research at Scientia Institute Conference


Several WAVE lab members presented their research at the Scientia Institute conference at Rice University in Houston, Texas on February 13-14, 2020.


WAVE lab director Tara Behrend spoke at the conference, presenting data from welders and welding educators in her talk, Rethinking the Role of Career and Technical Education for Workforce Development. 

Dave Tomczak and Pete Mancarella also presented a poster, An Instrument for Measuring Electronic Performance Monitoring, which was co-authored by lab alum Sarah Zarsky. Their study investigated the degree to which individuals perceive various forms of digital monitoring as acceptable. Findings suggest that characteristics of the monitoring device, its purpose, and its target all influence an individual’s perceived acceptability. Overall, newer monitoring technologies tend to be accepted less frequently than more established ones.


To learn more about the Scientia Institute conference, click here.

Congratulations to Dr. Ryan Horn

Congratulations to the WAVE lab’s newest Ph.D, Dr. Ryan Horn! In February he successfully defended his dissertation, titled Feedback-Seeking Behavior and Performance: A Longitudinal Exploration of Intraindividual Relationships. This study investigated new measurement and analysis approaches in feedback-seeking research. His findings offer initial evidence that feedback-seeking through a technology-mediated system relates to higher performance. We are proud of your accomplishments and wish you the best, Dr. Horn!


WAVE Lab Presentations at SIOP 2020

WAVE members will be presenting their research at the following sessions in Austin, Texas on April 23-25:


Thursday April 23rd

11:30 AM to 12:20 PM:

Blacksmith, N., Willford, J. C., & McCusker, M. Lack of focus on construct conceptualization is impeding scientific advancement. (Poster)


1:30 PM to 2:20 PM:

Ravid D. M. & Behrend, T. S. Break time task reminders, psychological detachment, and performance recovery. (Poster)


4:30 PM to 5:50 PM:

Behrend, T. S., Howard, M. C., Lee, L. M., Marin, S., Montefiori, L., Pitcher, B. D. (No Authorship Order). Virtual reality and assessment: Future directions for research and practice. (Alternative session)



Friday April 24th

10:00 AM to 10:50 AM:

Hess, R., Behrend, T. S., Carter, N. T., Kausel, E. E., Dubrow, S. R., Naber, A. M. Trust and the artificial intelligence-human interface at work. (Symposium)


12:30 PM to 1:20 PM:

Tomczak, D. L., Mancarela, P. J., Zarsky, S. & Behrend, T. S. An instrument for measuring electronic performance monitoring practices. (Poster)


1:30 PM to 2:20 PM:

Willford, J. C. & McCusker, M. From Humans OR Machines to Humans AND Machines: Optimizing Decision-making using AI (Panel Discussion)


Saturday April 25th

8:00 AM to 9:20 AM:

Langer, M. & Basch, J. Interview technology and AI: Effects on applicants, evaluators, and adverse impact. (Symposium)

  • White, J. C. & Behrend, T. S. Can you hear me now? The influence of technology disruptions in virtual interviews.
  • Gonzalez, M. F., Liu, W., Shirase, L., Tomczak, D. L., Lobbe, C. E., Justenhoven, R., Brandt, O., Tschöpe, N., Martin, N. R., & Preuss, A. AI as an ally: Improving reactions to artificial intelligence.

The Future of Job Interviews

Dr. Behrend was recently featured in a Wall Street Journal article by Hilke Schellmann on the future of job interviews. From AI-enabled personality profiles to skill-based certifications to virtual reality assessments, Dr. Behrend and other scholars forecast how rapid technological advancements and changes to the nature of work will affect job interviews in the 2020s. To read the article, click here.

Big Data in I-O and HRM

A new annual review by WAVE lab director Tara Behrend, along with Fred Oswald, Dan Putka, and Evan Sinar, discusses the relevance of big data and artificial intelligence for industrial-organizational psychologists and human resource managers. Their review provides a framework that covers both micro issues (e.g., linking data sources, decisions about which data to include, big data analytics) and macro issues (e.g., changing nature of big data, developing big data teams, educating professionals and graduate students, ethical and legal considerations). To read the paper, click here.

Congrats Dan!


Congratulations to WAVE lab member Dan Ravid on his recent accomplishments. In addition to passing his comprehensive exams in the spring, Dan was awarded the Mosel Award for research creativity for his second year project. His project explored the effects of break time task reminders on psychological detachment and vigilance performance using a latent growth modeling approach. Findings suggested that task reminders during breaks may indeed negatively affect post break vigilance performance as compared to a passive rest break without task reminders, but psychological detachment was not observed as a mediating mechanism for this relationship.

Dan was also recently awarded the Dean’s Graduate Instructorship for designing and proposing an undergraduate course on work-related stress. This instructorship allows Dan to teach his own undergraduate course while obtaining financial support for his dissertation research. Congrats Dan on these well-deserved accomplishments!

Dr. Behrend Discusses Future of Work on APA Podcast


Dr. Behrend recently spoke with Kaitlin Luna from the American Psychological Association’s podcast, Speaking of Psychology. In this episode, Luna and Behrend discuss technological trends and their effects on workers’ thoughts and behavior. As automation, artificial intelligence, and employee surveillance have become increasingly popular, ethical concerns and uncertainties surrounding the future of work exist. Dr. Behrend discusses these concerns while highlighting some recent findings from the WAVE lab. To listen or read a transcript of the podcast, click here.

New Research: Electronic Performance Monitoring


Interested in employee surveillance? A new paper from WAVE lab members Dan Ravid, Dave Tomczak, Jerod White, and Dr. Behrend offers a comprehensive review and research agenda for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) research. EPM refers to the use of technology to observe, record, and analyze information about employee behavior. Organizations use EPM in many forms, such as video surveillance systems, internet activity trackers, GPS trackers, and wearable safety monitors. In their paper, the authors propose a theory-based typology with four broad characteristics (i.e., purpose, invasiveness, synchronicity, and transparency) to describe the many forms of EPM that exist. To read the paper recently published in the Journal of Management, click here.

WAVE Research at Technology, Mind, and Society Conference


Several WAVE lab members recently attended the American Psychological Association’s 2019 Technology, Mind, & Society conference.



WAVE lab members Peter Mancarella, Brad Pitcher, Dave Tomczak, Jon Willford, and Dan Ravid pose for a photo during the conference.


On October 3, Dr. Behrend and ten other scientists participated in the first “Technology, Mind, and Society” Advocacy and Lobby Day.  The researchers met with staff from the House Science Committee and the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee. The group also discussed the National AI Strategy with Dr. Lynne Parker, the assistant director for AI at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.


TMS Advocacy Day 2019

Participants of the first TMS Advocacy and Lobby Day at Capitol Hill.


WAVE lab members Brad Pitcher and Dave Tomczak presented their research during the conference. Brad’s presentation (on 10/4), “Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in STEM through Virtual Reality and Constructive Feedback” explored the benefits of using virtual reality technologies in educational contexts. Dave’s presentation (on 10/5), “I Didn’t Agree to These Terms: Electronic Performance Monitoring Violates the Psychological Contract” focused on how the practice of electronic performance monitoring can violate workers’ expectations from their organization. See below for more information on their talks.


“Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in STEM through Virtual Reality and Constructive Feedback”

In this study, we explore the effects of learning VR welding in a social learning environment on performance in and attitudes toward welding through social learning theory. We found that individuals within the same group demonstrated a high degree of convergence on two VR welding performance metrics: objective performance and learning strategy. Furthermore, scores on these performance metrics, for individuals within a group, were significantly predicted by the scores of the first welder in the group, indicating the influence of behavioral modeling.


“I Didn’t Agree to These Terms: Electronic Performance Monitoring Violates the Psychological Contract”

Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) is a growing organizational practice, and newer forms of EPM are able to gather more personal employee information than ever before. In this study, we found that individuals perceive EPM as a violation of the psychological contract, and individuals with greater perceptions of job autonomy are more likely to perceive a violation. Individuals who hold negative perceptions of EPM reassert their autonomy by engaging in covert counterproductive work behaviors, such as withholding effort, and this effect holds true for jobs both high and low in complexity.