The Future of Job Interviews

Dr. Behrend was recently featured in a Wall Street Journal article by Hilke Schellmann on the future of job interviews. From AI-enabled personality profiles to skill-based certifications to virtual reality assessments, Dr. Behrend and other scholars forecast how rapid technological advancements and changes to the nature of work will affect job interviews in the 2020s. To read the article, click here.

Big Data in I-O and HRM

A new annual review by WAVE lab director Tara Behrend, along with Fred Oswald, Dan Putka, and Evan Sinar, discusses the relevance of big data and artificial intelligence for industrial-organizational psychologists and human resource managers. Their review provides a framework that covers both micro issues (e.g., linking data sources, decisions about which data to include, big data analytics) and macro issues (e.g., changing nature of big data, developing big data teams, educating professionals and graduate students, ethical and legal considerations). To read the paper, click here.

Congrats Dan!


Congratulations to WAVE lab member Dan Ravid on his recent accomplishments. In addition to passing his comprehensive exams in the spring, Dan was awarded the Mosel Award for research creativity for his second year project. His project explored the effects of break time task reminders on psychological detachment and vigilance performance using a latent growth modeling approach. Findings suggested that task reminders during breaks may indeed negatively affect post break vigilance performance as compared to a passive rest break without task reminders, but psychological detachment was not observed as a mediating mechanism for this relationship.

Dan was also recently awarded the Dean’s Graduate Instructorship for designing and proposing an undergraduate course on work-related stress. This instructorship allows Dan to teach his own undergraduate course while obtaining financial support for his dissertation research. Congrats Dan on these well-deserved accomplishments!

Dr. Behrend Discusses Future of Work on APA Podcast


Dr. Behrend recently spoke with Kaitlin Luna from the American Psychological Association’s podcast, Speaking of Psychology. In this episode, Luna and Behrend discuss technological trends and their effects on workers’ thoughts and behavior. As automation, artificial intelligence, and employee surveillance have become increasingly popular, ethical concerns and uncertainties surrounding the future of work exist. Dr. Behrend discusses these concerns while highlighting some recent findings from the WAVE lab. To listen or read a transcript of the podcast, click here.

New Research: Electronic Performance Monitoring


Interested in employee surveillance? A new paper from WAVE lab members Dan Ravid, Dave Tomczak, Jerod White, and Dr. Behrend offers a comprehensive review and research agenda for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) research. EPM refers to the use of technology to observe, record, and analyze information about employee behavior. Organizations use EPM in many forms, such as video surveillance systems, internet activity trackers, GPS trackers, and wearable safety monitors. In their paper, the authors propose a theory-based typology with four broad characteristics (i.e., purpose, invasiveness, synchronicity, and transparency) to describe the many forms of EPM that exist. To read the paper recently published in the Journal of Management, click here.

WAVE Research at Technology, Mind, and Society Conference


Several WAVE lab members recently attended the American Psychological Association’s 2019 Technology, Mind, & Society conference.



WAVE lab members Peter Mancarella, Brad Pitcher, Dave Tomczak, Jon Willford, and Dan Ravid pose for a photo during the conference.


On October 3, Dr. Behrend and ten other scientists participated in the first “Technology, Mind, and Society” Advocacy and Lobby Day.  The researchers met with staff from the House Science Committee and the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee. The group also discussed the National AI Strategy with Dr. Lynne Parker, the assistant director for AI at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.


TMS Advocacy Day 2019

Participants of the first TMS Advocacy and Lobby Day at Capitol Hill.


WAVE lab members Brad Pitcher and Dave Tomczak presented their research during the conference. Brad’s presentation (on 10/4), “Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in STEM through Virtual Reality and Constructive Feedback” explored the benefits of using virtual reality technologies in educational contexts. Dave’s presentation (on 10/5), “I Didn’t Agree to These Terms: Electronic Performance Monitoring Violates the Psychological Contract” focused on how the practice of electronic performance monitoring can violate workers’ expectations from their organization. See below for more information on their talks.


“Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in STEM through Virtual Reality and Constructive Feedback”

In this study, we explore the effects of learning VR welding in a social learning environment on performance in and attitudes toward welding through social learning theory. We found that individuals within the same group demonstrated a high degree of convergence on two VR welding performance metrics: objective performance and learning strategy. Furthermore, scores on these performance metrics, for individuals within a group, were significantly predicted by the scores of the first welder in the group, indicating the influence of behavioral modeling.


“I Didn’t Agree to These Terms: Electronic Performance Monitoring Violates the Psychological Contract”

Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) is a growing organizational practice, and newer forms of EPM are able to gather more personal employee information than ever before. In this study, we found that individuals perceive EPM as a violation of the psychological contract, and individuals with greater perceptions of job autonomy are more likely to perceive a violation. Individuals who hold negative perceptions of EPM reassert their autonomy by engaging in covert counterproductive work behaviors, such as withholding effort, and this effect holds true for jobs both high and low in complexity.

WAVE Research Featured in Axios Report

A recent news report, published by Axios, features WAVE research related to electronic performance monitoring. The report discusses the prevalence of workplace surveillance and how being monitored changes human behavior. To read the report, click here.

Human-Machine Collaboration

Lab member Jon Willford recently wrote about human-machine collaboration:


“Algorithms are increasingly used in assessment methods and technologies. The word algorithm is used colloquially in different ways, but in this context it generally refers to computer programs that utilize complex statistical models to combine tens, hundreds, or even thousands of variables to predict an outcome (e.g. job performance) or automate a process (e.g. eliminate unqualified applicants).


But although algorithms clearly have the potential to increase our ability to make better decisions, industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists and those in related fields have yet to fully consider how to optimize the collaboration between human decision makers and algorithmic decision aids. Viewing the human–algorithm relationship as a collaboration is fitting because better decision-making outcomes are possible when both are involved rather than when making decisions separately.”


Read the rest of the article at:



Technology and Employee Behavior


Congratulations to friend of the lab Dr. Richard N. Landers for his new book “The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior”.


This book also features two chapters written by WAVE Lab members:

  • Chapter 25 – “Electronic Surveillance” – Written by David Tomczak and Dr. Behrend
  • Chapter 28 – “Lost in the Crowd; Crowdsourcing as a Research Method” – Written by Dr. Behrend and Daniel Ravid

I/O In Amsterdam

Over Spring Break, Dr. Behrend and a group of students traveled to Amsterdam to learn more about the changing nature of work.


During their stay they visited:

    • MX3D – a robotic additive manufacturing technology developer.
    • Signal – a strategic consulting firm.
    • Hempel – a provider of protective coating solutions.