Dr. Behrend Discusses Future of Work on APA Podcast


Dr. Behrend recently spoke with Kaitlin Luna from the American Psychological Association’s podcast, Speaking of Psychology. In this episode, Luna and Behrend discuss technological trends and their effects on workers’ thoughts and behavior. As automation, artificial intelligence, and employee surveillance have become increasingly popular, ethical concerns and uncertainties surrounding the future of work exist. Dr. Behrend discusses these concerns while highlighting some recent findings from the WAVE lab. To listen or read a transcript of the podcast, click here.

New Research: Electronic Performance Monitoring


Interested in employee surveillance? A new paper from WAVE lab members Dan Ravid, Dave Tomczak, Jerod White, and Dr. Behrend offers a comprehensive review and research agenda for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) research. EPM refers to the use of technology to observe, record, and analyze information about employee behavior. Organizations use EPM in many forms, such as video surveillance systems, internet activity trackers, GPS trackers, and wearable safety monitors. In their paper, the authors propose a theory-based typology with four broad characteristics (i.e., purpose, invasiveness, synchronicity, and transparency) to describe the many forms of EPM that exist. To read the paper recently published in the Journal of Management, click here.

WAVE Research at Technology, Mind, and Society Conference


Several WAVE lab members recently attended the American Psychological Association’s 2019 Technology, Mind, & Society conference.



WAVE lab members Peter Mancarella, Brad Pitcher, Dave Tomczak, Jon Willford, and Dan Ravid pose for a photo during the conference.


On October 3, Dr. Behrend and ten other scientists participated in the first “Technology, Mind, and Society” Advocacy and Lobby Day.  The researchers met with staff from the House Science Committee and the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee. The group also discussed the National AI Strategy with Dr. Lynne Parker, the assistant director for AI at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.


TMS Advocacy Day 2019

Participants of the first TMS Advocacy and Lobby Day at Capitol Hill.


WAVE lab members Brad Pitcher and Dave Tomczak presented their research during the conference. Brad’s presentation (on 10/4), “Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in STEM through Virtual Reality and Constructive Feedback” explored the benefits of using virtual reality technologies in educational contexts. Dave’s presentation (on 10/5), “I Didn’t Agree to These Terms: Electronic Performance Monitoring Violates the Psychological Contract” focused on how the practice of electronic performance monitoring can violate workers’ expectations from their organization. See below for more information on their talks.


“Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in STEM through Virtual Reality and Constructive Feedback”

In this study, we explore the effects of learning VR welding in a social learning environment on performance in and attitudes toward welding through social learning theory. We found that individuals within the same group demonstrated a high degree of convergence on two VR welding performance metrics: objective performance and learning strategy. Furthermore, scores on these performance metrics, for individuals within a group, were significantly predicted by the scores of the first welder in the group, indicating the influence of behavioral modeling.


“I Didn’t Agree to These Terms: Electronic Performance Monitoring Violates the Psychological Contract”

Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) is a growing organizational practice, and newer forms of EPM are able to gather more personal employee information than ever before. In this study, we found that individuals perceive EPM as a violation of the psychological contract, and individuals with greater perceptions of job autonomy are more likely to perceive a violation. Individuals who hold negative perceptions of EPM reassert their autonomy by engaging in covert counterproductive work behaviors, such as withholding effort, and this effect holds true for jobs both high and low in complexity.

WAVE Research Featured in Axios Report

A recent news report, published by Axios, features WAVE research related to electronic performance monitoring. The report discusses the prevalence of workplace surveillance and how being monitored changes human behavior. To read the report, click here.

Human-Machine Collaboration

Lab member Jon Willford recently wrote about human-machine collaboration:


“Algorithms are increasingly used in assessment methods and technologies. The word algorithm is used colloquially in different ways, but in this context it generally refers to computer programs that utilize complex statistical models to combine tens, hundreds, or even thousands of variables to predict an outcome (e.g. job performance) or automate a process (e.g. eliminate unqualified applicants).


But although algorithms clearly have the potential to increase our ability to make better decisions, industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists and those in related fields have yet to fully consider how to optimize the collaboration between human decision makers and algorithmic decision aids. Viewing the human–algorithm relationship as a collaboration is fitting because better decision-making outcomes are possible when both are involved rather than when making decisions separately.”


Read the rest of the article at:


Technology and Employee Behavior


Congratulations to friend of the lab Dr. Richard N. Landers for his new book “The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior”.


This book also features two chapters written by WAVE Lab members:

  • Chapter 25 – “Electronic Surveillance” – Written by David Tomczak and Dr. Behrend
  • Chapter 28 – “Lost in the Crowd; Crowdsourcing as a Research Method” – Written by Dr. Behrend and Daniel Ravid

I/O In Amsterdam

Over Spring Break, Dr. Behrend and a group of students traveled to Amsterdam to learn more about the changing nature of work.


During their stay they visited:

    • MX3D – a robotic additive manufacturing technology developer.
    • Signal – a strategic consulting firm.
    • Hempel – a provider of protective coating solutions.


2019 Technology Mind and Society Conference

The annual Technology Mind and Society (TMS) conference will be taking place this year between 03-October-2019 and 05-October-2019 at the Grand Hyatt in Washington, DC.


Take advantage of this opportunity to join scientists, practitioners, policymakers, industry leaders, and students from around the world for three days to gain insights from experts in the field. More Conference Info Here


Congrats Sarah and Ian!

Congratulations to Sarah Zarsky and Ian Siderits, who have both been accepted to top Ph.D. programs for Fall 2019!


Sarah has been accepted into the Industrial-Organizational Psychology Program at George Mason University, and Ian has been accepted into the Industrial-Organizational Psychology Program at North Carolina State University.


We wish you both the best!


Dr. Behrend Visits APA HQ

Dr. Behrend visited APA headquarters to talk about the implications of a technology-enabled workforce; specifically, she discussed WAVE Lab research concerning the effects of electronic surveillance on workers and met with APA leadership to discuss the ways that applied psychology can interface with future of work issues.