Research


Technology-Mediated Interviews

Interviewing candidates is a standard and vital part of the selection process for almost every organization.  As technology progresses, so too are the ways in which organizations conduct interviews. . The use of technology-mediated interviews such as telephone, video-based, or online chat interviews can reduce the cost of interviewing and allow organizations to interview a broader applicant population.  While these types of technologies come with many benefits for Human Resource departments, research is needed in order to ensure organizations are implementing these solutions in a strategic and appropriate manner. In addition, as the features and characteristics of these technologies change so do the psychological implications for both applicants and interviewers.  The WAVE lab is conducting several research projects that begin to address the impact that technology can have on the interview experience.

Horn, R. G. & Behrend, T. S. (2017). Video killed the interview star: Does picture-in-picture affect interview performance? Personnel Assessment and Decisions. 3(1), 51-59.

Blacksmith, N. B., Willford, J. C., & Behrend, T. S. (2016). Technology in the employment interview: A meta-analysis and future research agenda. Personnel Assessment and Decisions. 2(1), 12-20.

Blacksmith, N., Horn, R., & Behrend, T. S. (2013). Online interviews: An exploration of how text-only media influences information used to rate applicants. Poster presented at the 25th annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC.

Horn, R.G., Shen, R., & Behrend, TS (2015, May). An exploration of accent and medium effects in employment interviews.  Poster presented to the Annual Meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, New York, NY.


Electronic Surveillance and Monitoring

The shift towards digital work has raised a number of questions regarding personnel selection and evaluation. How does an organization measure the performance of employees who work remotely? How can an organization verify an applicant’s identity and proctor a test online? Electronic monitoring technology has been proposed to address both of these issues, among others. This  technology allows supervisors to collect information ranging from simple time stamps to detailed activity logs that capture every keystroke a person makes while online. While these tools are seen as a necessity by some organizations, they can have strong negative effects on a worker’s well-being and sense of autonomy. The WAVE lab is currently investigating the relationships between monitoring practices and employee behaviors.

Brown Yost, A., Behrend, T. S., Howardson, G., Badger Darrow, J., D., & Jensen, J. M. (2018). Reactance to electronic surveillance: A test of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology. 1-16.

Willford, J. C., Tomczak, D. L., Jimenez, W., Ravid, D., & Behrend, T. S. (2017, April). Electronic Performance Monitoring Type Predicts Monitoring Perceptions and Contextual Performance. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL.

Willford, J.C., Cox, M.J., Howard, R.H., & Behrend, TS. (2015, May). Workplace monitoring and surveillance: A mixed-methods examination of invasiveness perceptions. Poster presented to the Annual Meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, New York, NY.

Willford, J. C., Howard, R. H., Cox, M. J., Badger, J. M., & Behrend, T. S. (2015, April). A latent class analysis of electronic performance monitoring practices.  Poster presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Karim, M. N., Kaminsky, S. E., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Cheating, reactions, and performance in remotely proctored testing: An exploratory experimental study. Journal of Business and Psychology (special issue on Inductive Research), 29, 555-572. doi: 10.1007/s10869-014-9343-z

Brown, A. R., Badger, J. M., Behrend, T. S., & Jensen, J. M. (2012, April). Personality Predicts Acceptance of Performance Monitoring at Work. Paper presented to the 27th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Technology and Learning

Computer-based training allows learners greater amounts of control over the training’s instructional and scheduling features. Instructional features, such as the training’s pace, content, guidance, design, and sequence may influence the way that learners interact with training content. On the other hand, scheduling features may allow learners to choose a time that works best in their busy schedules. The study and book chapter below examine the dimensionality and effects of learner-controlled training on learning and training reactions.

Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Reexamining the nature of learner control: Dimensionality and effects on learning and training reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 287-99.  doi: 10.1007/s10869-013-9309-6.

Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2013). Controlling Engagement: The Effects of Learner Control on Engagement and Satisfaction. In C. Wankel & P. Blessinger. Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-Learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies. Emerald Publishing Group.

By Year

In Press

Dubrow, S., Behrend, T. S., & Emich, K. J. (in press). I think you can: Transpersonal efficacy in teams. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Tomczak, D. L. & Behrend, T. S. (in press). I spy: A research agenda for the study of workplace surveillance and privacy. In R. N. Landers (Ed.) Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior.

Behrend, T. S., & Ravid, D. M. (in press). Lost in the crowd: Crowdsourcing as a research method. In R. N. Landers (Ed.) Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior.

White, J., Behrend, T., & Siderits, I. (in press). Changes in Workplace Technology. In B. Hoffman, M. Shoss, & L. Wegman (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of the Changing Nature of Work. Cambridge University Press.

Blacksmith, N., Behrend, T. S., Dalal, R. S., & Hayes, T. L. (2019). General mental ability and decision-making competence: Theoretically distinct but empirically redundant. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 305–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.10.024

2018

Brown Yost, A., Behrend, T. S., Howardson, G., Badger Darrow, J., & Jensen, J. M. (2018). Reactance to electronic surveillance: A test of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology. 1-16.

Tomczak, D. L., Lanzo, L. A., & Aguinis, H. (2018). Evidence-based recommendations for employee performance monitoring. Business Horizons, 61(2), 251-259.

Blacksmith, N., Yang, Y., Ruark, G., & Behrend, T. S. (2018, July). A Validity Analysis of the Cognitive Reflection Test Using an Item-Response-Tree Model. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 18090). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Behrend, T. S., Brown, K. G., Burke-Smalley, L., Kraiger, K., Peterson, D. B., Salas, E., Surface, E. A. (2018, April). The future of learning and development research: Threats and opportunities. Symposium to be conducted at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Aiello, J. R., Cascio, W. F., McNall, L. A., Stanton, J. M., & Behrend, T. S. (2018, April). Invisible eye or helping hand? The present and future of organizational surveillance. In D. L. Tomczak & T.S. Behrend (Chairs). Panel presented at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Tomczak, D. L., Willford, J. C., White, J. C., & Behrend, T. S. (2018, April). When electronic monitoring encourages withdrawal: The mediating role of autonomy. Poster presented at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Fink, A., Battista, M., Behrend, T. S., Kolmstetter, E. B., Kraiger, K., & Macey, W. H. (2018, April). Forging the future of work with I/O psychology. Panel conducted at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

2017

Badger Darrow, J., & Behrend, T. S. (2017). Person-environment fit is a formative construct. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 103, 117-131.

Horn, R. G. & Behrend, T. S. (2017). Video killed the interview star: Does picture-in-picture affect interview performance? Personnel Assessment and Decisions. 3(1), 51-59.

Tomczak, D. L., & Behrend, T. S. (2017, May). Student Outcomes Stem From Support: Perceived Organizational Support for Innovation and Technology Implementation in Schools. Poster presented at the 30th APS Annual Convention, Boston, MA.

Tomczak, D. L., Willford, J. C., Miles, A., Kosinski, M., & Behrend, T. S. (2017, April). Personality Variability Predicts Information Sharing: A Large Scale Field Study. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL.

Willford, J. C., Tomczak, D. L., Jimenez, W., Ravid, D., & Behrend, T. S. (2017, April). Electronic Performance Monitoring Type Predicts Monitoring Perceptions and Contextual Performance. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL.

Auer, E., Behrend, T. S., Collmus, A., & Landers, R. N. (2017, April). How Pay Affects Performance and Retention in Longitudinal Crowdsourced Research. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL.

2016

Blacksmith, N. B., Willford, J. C., & Behrend, T. S. (2016). Technology in the employment interview: A meta-analysis and future research agenda. Personnel Assessment and Decisions. 2(1), 12-20.

Howardson, G. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2016). Coming full circle with reactions: Understanding the structure and correlates of trainee reactions through the affect circumplex. Academy of Management Learning & Education. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.5465/amle.2014.0012

Behrend, T. S., Willford, J. C., & Foster, L. L. (2016, April). 21st Century Skills: Why Do They Matter to I-O? Symposium presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA.

Blacksmith, N., Behrend, T. S., Dalal, R. S., & Hayes, T. L. (2016, April). g Explains Individual Differences in Decision-Making Competence. Symposium presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA.

Blacksmith, N., Behrend, T. S., Dalal, R. S., & Hayes, T. L. (2016, April). g Explains Individual Differences in Decision-Making Competence. Symposium presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA.

Nichols, J., Blacksmith, N.,& Behrend, T. S. (2016, May). Exploring Predictors of Internship Satisfaction: Perceived Fit and Interest Fit. Poster presented at the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Psychological Science, Chicago, IL.

2015

Wiebe, E. N., Thompson, I., & Behrend, T. S. (2015). MOOCs from the viewpoint of the learner: A response to Perna. Educational Researcher, 44, 252-254. doi: 10.3102/0013189X15584774

Howardson, G. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2015). I think I can, but why? Assessing the sources of pre-training self-efficacy: development and validation of a new measure. International Journal of Training & Development, 19(4), 233-252. doi: 10.1111/ijtd.12060

Landers, R. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2015). An inconvenient truth: Arbitrary distinctions between organizational, Mechanical Turk, and other convenience samples (focal article). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 8(2), 142-164.  doi: 10.1017/iop.2015.13

Willford, J.C., Cox, M.J., Howard, R.H., & Behrend, TS. (2015, May). Workplace monitoring and surveillance: A mixed-methods examination of invasiveness perceptions. Poster presented to the Annual Meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, New York, NY.

Horn, R.G., Shen, R., & Behrend, TS (2015, May). An exploration of accent and medium effects in employment interviews.  Poster presented to the Annual Meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, New York, NY.

Willford, J.C., Howard, R.H., Cox, M.J., Badger, J.M., & Behrend, TS (2015, April). A latent class analysis of electronic performance monitoring practices.  Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Badger, J.M., & Behrend, T. S. (2015, April). The formative nature of person-organization fit. Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Blacksmith, N., Karim, M. N., Kaminsky, S. E., & Behrend, T. S. (2015, April). Individual difference determinants of withdrawal from cognitive ability assessments. Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Yu, P., & Behrend, T. S. (2015, April). Putting the “e” in efficacy: Understanding technology-related efficacy judgments. Symposium presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Blacksmith, N., Willford, J., & Behrend, T. S. (2015, April). Technology mediation lowers interview ratings and reactions. Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Frankosky, M., London, J. Thompson, I., Behrend, T. S., & Wiebe, E. N. (2015, April). Data analytics for modeling user behavior within MOOCs: A comparison of clustering techniques. Paper presented at the 99th Annual American Educational Research Association Convention, Chicago, IL.

2014

Badger, J. M., Kaminsky, S. E., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Media richness and information acquisition in Internet recruitment. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(7), 866-883. doi: 10.1108/JMP-05-2012-0155

Behrend, T. S. (2014, May). Recruitment and selection in the virtual workplace.  Invited presentation to the Association for Psychological Science Annual Convention, San Francisco CA.

Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Reexamining the nature of learner control: Dimensionality and effects on learning and training reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29,287-99.  doi: 10.1007/s10869-013-9309-6.

Karim, M. N., Kaminsky, S. E., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Cheating, reactions, and performance in remotely proctored testing: An exploratory experimental study. Journal of Business and Psychology (special issue on Inductive Research), 29, 555-572. doi: 10.1007/s10869-014-9343-z

Howardson, G. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Using the internet to recruit employees: Comparing the effects of usability expectations and objective technological characteristics on Internet recruitment options. Computers in Human Behavior, 31(14), 334-342. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.057

Kaminsky, S. E., & Behrend, T. S. (2014, May). Calling affects career choice: Integrating calling & social cognitive career theory. Paper presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Behrend, T. S., Yost, A. B., Badger, J. M., Jensen, J., & Willford, J. (2014, May). Antecedents and outcomes of reactance to electronic performance monitoring. Paper presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Behrend, T. S., & Major, D. (2014, May). I-O psychology’s contributions to patching the STEM pipeline. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

2013

Behrend, T. S., Gloss, A. E., Howardson, G. N., Thompson, L. F., & McCallum, S. (2013). Psychological dynamics in ICTD projects. Proceedings of ICTD 2013, 6, 9-12. doi: 10.1145/2517899.2517944

Behrend, T. S., Gloss, A., & Thompson, L. F. (2013). Global development through the psychology of workplace technology. In M. Coovert & L.F. Thompson (eds.) The psychology of workplace technology (pp. 261-283). Routledge.

Blacksmith, N., Horn, R., & Behrend, T. S. (2013, May). Online interviews: An exploration of how text-only media influences information used to rate applicants. Poster presented at the 25th annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC.

Horn, R., Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. Sharek, D. J., & Wiebe, E. N. (2013, May). Mechanical Turk: Compensation rate and data quality. Poster presented at the 25th annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC.

Howardson, G. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2013, May). Learning goal orientation moderates the negative effects of pleasant and activating affect on goal striving processes. Poster presented at the 25th annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC.

Kaminsky, S. E. & Behrend, T. S. (2013, May). Development of the Workplace Computer Self-Efficacy Scale. Poster presented at the 25th annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC.

Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2013, May). Motivated decision-making: Development of a choice goals measure. Poster presented at the 25th annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC.

Howardson, G. H., & Behrend, T. S. (2013, April). Assessing the indirect effects of self-efficacy sources on learning. Poster presented at the 28th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX.

Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2013, April). Learner control: Individual differences, control perceptions, and control usage. Poster presented at the 28th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX.

Karim, M. N., Kaminsky, S. E., & Behrend, T. S. (2013, April). Effects of remote proctoring on test performance and applicant reactions. In T. Hayes (Chair), Technology Enhanced Assessments, a Measurement Odyssey. Symposium presented at the 28th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX.

Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2013). Controlling Engagement: The Effects of Learner Control on Engagement and Satisfaction. In C. Wankel & P. Blessinger. Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-Learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies. Emerald Publishing Group.

2012

Brown, A.R., Badger, J. M., Behrend, T. S., & Jensen, J. N. (2012, April). Personality predicts acceptance of electronic performance monitoring at work. Paper presented to the 27th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Karim, M. N., Behrend, T. S., & Saqib S. I. (2012, April). A multidimensional framework of learner control. In T.S. Behrend & R. Landers (Chairs), Building a Science of Learner Control in Training: Current Perspectives. Symposium presented at the 27th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Behrend, T. S., &  Thompson, L. F. (2012). Using animated agents in learner-controlled training: The effects of design control. International Journal of Training & Development, 16, 263-283. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2419.2012.00413.x

Behrend, T. S., Toady, S., Thompson, L. F., & Sharek, D. J. (2012). The effects of avatar appearance on interviewer ratings in virtual employment interviews. Human Behavior, 28, 2128-2133. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.017

2011

Badger, J. M. & Behrend, T. S. (2011, August). Avatars aren’t for everyone: Personality differences in perceptions of virtual worlds and websites. Poster to be presented at the 119th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Karim, M. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2011, August). Changes in training reactions over time: The role of evaluation apprehension and skills test performance. Poster presented at the 119th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Howardson, G. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2011, April). Internet job-seekers’ information expectations predict organizational attraction. Paper presented to the 26th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Kaminsky, S. E., Badger, J. M., & Behrend, T. S. (2011, April). Employee Recruitment in Virtual Worlds: Effects on Information Transfer. In R. Landers & T. S. Behrend (Chairs), Empirical Evidence for Emerging Technology: MUVEs/Virtual Worlds in HR. Symposium presented at the 26th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Behrend, T. S., & Thompson, L. F. (2011). Similarity effects in online training: Effects with computerized training agents. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1201-1207. 10.1016/j.chb.2010.12.016