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Source 1Dates & EventsTechnology Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2018, from http://www.datesandevents.org/events-timelines/12-technology-timeline.htm
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Source 2King UniversityTechnology Through the Years Infographic. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2018, from https://online.king.edu/technology-through-the-years-infographic/
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Source 3Computer HistoryWelcome | Timeline of Computer History | Computer History Museum. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2018, from http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/
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Source 4DARPAHistory and Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2018, from https://www.darpa.mil/about-us/darpa-history-and-timeline?ppl=view48
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Source 5Hobbes'Hobbes’ Internet Timeline 25 - the definitive ARPAnet & Internet history. (n.d.). Retrieved June 15, 2018, from https://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/
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Source 6+Other Source**Identified Withing Date-Point**
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BCE DEVELOPMENTS
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2400 BCEThe abacus, the first known calculator, invented in Babylonia
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300 BCEPingala invents the binary number system
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87 BCEAntikythera Mechanism invented in Rhodes to track movement of the stars
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ACE-1400's DEVELOPMENTS
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724Liang Ling-Can invents the first fully mechanical clock
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1041Movable type printing press invented by Bi Sheng
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1280Eyeglasses were invented
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1350Suspension bridges built in Peru
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1450Alphabetic, movable type printing press invented by Johann Gutenberg
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1500's DEVELOPMENTS
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1500Ball bearing invented by Leonardo Da Vinci together with flying machines, including a helicopter, the first mechanical calculator and one of the first programmable robots
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1510Pocket watch invented by Peter Henlein
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1576Ironclad warship invented by Oda Nobunaga
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1581Pendulum invented by Galileo Galilei
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1593Thermometer invented by Galileo Galilei
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1600's DEVELOPMENTS
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1608Telescope invented by Hans Lippershey
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1609Microscope invented by Galileo Galilei
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1642Adding machine invented by Blaise Pascal
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1643Barometer invented by Evangelista Torricelli
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1645Vacuum pump invented by Otto von Guericke
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1657Pendulum clock invented by Christiaan Huygens
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1687Pressure cooker invented by Denis Papin
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1679Newton, Principia: Newton's physics formed the foundation of modern science
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1698Steam engine invented by Thomas Savery
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1671Gottfried Leibniz is known as one of the founding fathers of calculus
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Early 1700's DEVELOPMENTS
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1705Steam piston engine invented by Thomas Newcomen
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1708Jethro Tull invents mechanical (seed) sower
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1710Modern thermometer invented by Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur
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1733John Kay invents flying shuttle.
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1742Franklin stove invented by Benjamin Franklin
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Late 1700's DEVELOPMENTS
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1752Lightning rod invented by Benjamin Franklin
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1767Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves
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1769Steam engine invented by James Watt
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1774Priestly isolates oxygen
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1779First steam powered mills automate the weaving process.
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1781William Herschel discovers the planet Uranus.
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1783Hot air balloon invented by Montgolfier brothers
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1784Oliver Evans created the first continuous production line
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1791Steamboat invented by John Fitch
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1793Eli Whitney develops the cotton gin
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1798Vaccination invented by Edward Jenner
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1799Humphrey Davy discovers nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
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Early 1800's DEVELOPMENTS
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1804Locomotive invented by Richard Trevithick
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1814Steam Locomotive (Blucher) invented by George Stephenson
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1816Miner's safety lamp invented by Humphry Davy
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1816Stethoscope invented by Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec
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1820The Arithmometer was the first mass-produced calculator invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar
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1821Faraday demonstrates the principle of the electric motor.
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1821Charles Babbage designs his first mechanical computer
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1822Electric motor invented by Michael Faraday
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1826Photography invented by Joseph Nicephore Niepce
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1830Lawn mower invented by Edwin Beard Budding
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1831Von Liebig discovers chloroform
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1831Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines.
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1834Braille invented by Louis Braille
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1834Refrigerator invented by Jacob Perkins
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1834Combine harvester invented by Hiram Moore
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1835Morse code invented by Samuel Morse
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1835Revolver invented by Samuel Colt
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1838Electric telegraph invented by Charles Wheatstone (also Samuel Morse)
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1838Daguerre perfects the Daguerrotype.
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1839Vulcanization of rubber invented by Charles Goodyear
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1842Anaesthesia invented by Crawford Long
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1843Typewriter invented by Charles Thurber
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1846Sewing machine invented by Elias Howe
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1846Rotary printing press invented by Richard M. Hoe
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1846Pneumatic tire patented
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1849Safety pin invented by Walter Hunt
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1849Monier develops reinforced concrete
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Late 1800's DEVELOPMENTS
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1859Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species
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1859Etienne Lenoir demonstrates the first successful gasoline engine
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1862Revolving machine gun invented by Richard J. Gatling
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1862Isaac Singer commercializes the sewing machine
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1862Mechanical submarine invented by Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol
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1866Lister demonstrates the use of carbolic antiseptic
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1869Mendeleev produces the Periodic Table
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1870Stock ticker invented by Thomas Alva Edison
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1873Christopher Sholes invents the Remington typewriter
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1873James Clerk Maxwell states the laws of electro-magnetic radiation
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1876Gasoline carburettor invented by Daimler
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1877Phonograph invented by Thomas Alva Edison
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1877Microphone invented by Emile Berliner
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1878Cathode ray tube invented by William Crookes
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1878Edison invents the incandescent lamp.
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1880Photophone invented by Alexander Graham Bell
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1883First skyscraper built in Chicago (ten stories)
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1883Maxim invents the machine gun
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1885Motor cycle invented by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach
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1885Benz develops first automobile to run on internal- combustion engine
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1888Hertz produces radio waves.
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1888Eiffel Tower is built
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1891Zipper invented by Whitcomb L. Judson
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1891Rudolf Diesel invents diesel
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1893Wireless communication invented by Nikola Tesla
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1895Diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel
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1895Radio signals were invented by Guglielmo Marconi
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1895Auguste and Louis Lumiere develop Cinematograph
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1895Roentgen discovers X-rays
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1898Remote control invented by Nikola Tesla
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1900's DEVELOPMENTS
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1900Planck develops quantum theory
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1900First Zeppelin is built
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1901Vacuum cleaner invented by Hubert Booth
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1903Powered airplane invented by Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright
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1905Einstein writes the Theory of Relativity.
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1907Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere
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1907Helicopter invented by Paul Cornu
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1907Radio amplifier invented by Lee DeForest
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1908Henry Ford mass-produces the Model T.
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1909Bakelite invented by Leo Baekeland
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1910's DEVELOPMENTS
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1919London to Paris air service begins
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1919James Smathers develops the first electric typewriter
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1920's DEVELOPMENTS
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1923Sound film invented by Lee DeForest
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1923Television Electronic invented by Philo Farnsworth
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1924Electro Mechanical television system invented by John Logie Baird
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1926Robert Goddard experiments with liquid-fueled rockets.
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1928Antibiotics, penicillin invented by Alexander Fleming
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1930's DEVELOPMENTS
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1931Iconoscope invented by Vladimir Zworykin
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1933Telex messaging network starts as a way to distribute military messages, but soon becomes a world-wide network of both official and commercial text messaging
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1934Belgian Paul Otlet created "world brains" microfilm based search engine: inclusion of automated cross-references – which Today, we call hyperlinks.
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1937Jet engine invented by Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain
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1937Alan Turing develops the concept of a theoretical computing machine
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1937Bell Laboratories scientist George Stibitz uses relays for a demonstration adder: provides proof of concept for applying Boolean logic to the design of computers
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1937Konrad Zuse (German engineer) built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays.
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1938Ballpoint pen invented by Laszlo Biro
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1939Elektro at the World's Fair: relay-based Elektro robot responds to the rhythm of voice commands and delivers wisecracks pre-recorded on 78 rpm records
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1939Hewlett-Packard is founded by David Packard and Bill Hewlett in a Palo Alto, California garage.
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1940 DEVELOPMENTS
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1940The Complex Number Calculator (CNC) is completed at Bell Telephone Laboratories (likely the first example of remote access computing)
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1941 DEVELOPMENTS
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1941Konrad Zuse finishes the Z3 Computer: The Z3 was used for aerodynamic calculations but was destroyed in a bombing raid on Berlin in late 1943
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1941The Three Laws of Robotics published in Isaac Asimov's science fiction short story "Liar!": This is thought to be the first known use of the term “robotics.”
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1941The first Bombe is completed: Built as an electro-mechanical means of decrypting Nazi ENIGMA-based military communications during World War II
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1942 DEVELOPMENTS
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1942The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) is completed by Professor John Vincent Atanasoff
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1943 DEVELOPMENTS
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1943Enigma: Adolf Hitler uses the Enigma encryption machine
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1943Colossus: Alan Turing develops the the code-breaking machine Colossus
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1943Aqua-Lung invented by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan
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1943Warren S. McCulloch and Walter H. Pitts publish "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity": Became a foundational work in the study of artificial neural networks
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1943Bell Labs Relay Interpolator is completed: US Army asked Bell Laboratories to design a machine to assist in testing its M-9 gun director, a type of analog computer that aims large guns to their targets
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1943Curt Herzstark designs Curta calculator: smallest all-mechanical, four-function calculator ever built at the time
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1943Project Whirlwind begins: origionally a flight simulator to train bomber crews, changed into an air defense system
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1944 DEVELOPMENTS
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1944First Colossus operational at Bletchley Park: designed to break the complex Lorenz ciphers used by the Nazis during World War II: reduced the time to break Lorenz messages from weeks to hours
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1944Harvard Mark 1 is completed: room-sized, relay-based calculator
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1945 DEVELOPMENTS
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1945The atomic bomb
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1945John von Neumann writes First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC: outlines the architecture of a stored-program computer, including electronic storage of programming information and data
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1945Konrad Zuse begins work on Plankalkül (Plan Calculus), the first algorithmic programming language, with the goal of creating the theoretical preconditions for the solution of general problems
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1945“First actual case of bug being found”: Grace Hopper records what she jokingly called the first actual computer bug — in this case, a moth stuck between relay contacts of the Harvard Mark II computer.
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1945The imaginary Memex desk, with side-by-side screens, is meant to let a user compare and create links between microfilm documents, somewhat like today’s clickable Web links and bookmarks.
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1946 DEVELOPMENTS
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1946Microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer
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1946A Logic Named Joe is published: Almost fifty years prior to the invention of the Internet, A Logic Named Joe contains one of the most prescient views of the capabilities of computers in a network.
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1946Moore School lectures take place: This free, public set of lectures inspired the EDSAC, BINAC, and, later, IAS machine clones like the AVIDAC.
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1946Public unveiling of ENIAC: Because of its electronic, as opposed to electromechanical, technology, it is over 1,000 times faster than any previous computer.
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1947 DEVELOPMENTS
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1947Williams-Kilburn tube tested: first high-speed, entirely electronic memory. It used a cathode ray tube to store bits as dots on the screen’s surface.
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1947Transistor invented by Gordon Bell
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1948 DEVELOPMENTS
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1948Norbert Wiener publishes the book Cybernetics, which has a major influence on research into artificial intelligence and control systems.
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1948American mathematician Claude Shannon writes The Mathematical Theory of Communication, laying the groundwork for understanding the theoretical limits of communication between people and machines.
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1948Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM) built to test a new memory technology developed: first electronic random access memory: first program to ever run on an electronic stored-program computer.
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1948Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) project goes on display: SSEC was one of the few and last of the generation of ‘super calculators’ to be built using electromechanical technology
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1949 DEVELOPMENTS
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1949Alan Turing and Geoffrey Jefferson quoted on artificial intelligence
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1949Birth of the Modem: Computers “talk” over ordinary voice phone lines through modem - (MODulation + DEModulation = MODEM).
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1949CSIRAC runs first program: CSIRAC was designed by British-born Trevor Pearcey, and used unusual 12-hole paper tape.
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1949EDSAC completed: The first practical stored-program computer to provide a regular computing service, EDSAC is built at Cambridge University using vacuum tubes and mercury delay lines for memory.
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1949EDSAC: Major advance in programming: Use of a library of short programs, called “subroutines,” stored on punched paper tapes and used for performing common repetitive calculations within a lager program.
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1949EDSAC: Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). EDSAC, a stored program computer, used mercury delay line memory.
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1949IBM switches to electronics
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1949MADDIDA developed: digital drum-based differential analyzer: performing mathematical equations scientists and engineers encounter in their work. Originally created for a nuclear missile design project
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1949MIT - Magnetic core memory: first reliable high-speed random access memory for computers. Magnetic core memory was widely used as the main memory technology for computers well into the 1970s.
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1949Manchester Mark I completed: prototype for Ferranti’s first computer – the Ferranti Mark 1: occupied an area the size of a medium room: later adopted by several other early computer systems
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1950 DEVELOPMENTS
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1950ERA 1101 introduced: One of the first commercially produced computers, the company´s first customer was the US Navy.
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1950Grey Walter's Elsie: built wheeled automatons in order to experiment with goal-seeking behavior: Best known robot used photoelectric cells to seek moderate light while avoiding both strong light and darkness
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1950Isaac Asimov's I, Robot: Asimov’s creations must obey the “Three Laws of Robotics” (1941) to assure they are no threat to humans or each other. The book consisted of nine science fiction short stories.
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1950Magnetic drum memory: Atlas used magnetic drum memory, which stored information on the outside of a rotating cylinder coated with ferromagnetic material and circled by read/write heads in fixed positions.
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1950NPL Pilot ACE completed: Pilot ACE computer is constructed at the National Physical Laboratory: The design packed 800 vacuum tubes into a relatively compact 12 square feet.
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1950Plans to build the Simon 1 relay logic machine are published: Simon 1 used relay logic and cost about $600 to build - Simon is so simple and so small in fact that it could be built to fill about four cubic feet.
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1950Standards Eastern Automatic Computer (SEAC) is among the first stored-program computers in the United States: one of the first computers to use all-diode logic, a technology more reliable than vacuum tubes.
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1951 DEVELOPMENTS
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1951CSIRAC plays the Colonel Bogey march: Australia's first computer, the CSIRAC plays several songs, including Colonel Bogey
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1951Ferranti Mark I sold: first commercially available general-purpose computer
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1951First Univac 1 delivered to US Census Bureau: The Univac 1 is the first commercial computer to attract widespread public attention. Univac 1 used 5,200 vacuum tubes and weighed 29,000 pounds.
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1951J. Lyons & Company introduce LEO-1: LEO was England’s first commercial computer and was performing useful work before any other commercial computer system in the world.
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1951Nimrod on display at Festival of Britain: building a machine to play NIM, a simple game where players take turns removing matches from piles in an attempt to be the last person to remove a match.
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1951Squee: The Robot Squirrel: uses two light sensors and two contact switches to hunt for tennis balls and drag them to its nest. Squee was described as “75% reliable,” but it worked well only in a very dark room.
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1951Alan Turing creates a standard test to answer: “Can machines think?” - "if a computer, on the basis of written replies to questions, could not be distinguished from a human respondent, then it must be “thinking”.
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1951UNIVAC UNISERVO tape drive: first tape storage device for a commercial computer, and the relative low cost, portability and unlimited offline capacity of magnetic tape made it very popular.
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1951Nuclear power reactor invented by Walter Zinn
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1952 DEVELOPMENTS
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1952Alexander Douglas writes OXO for EDSAC: one of the earliest computer games, a version of Tic-Tac-Toe (known in Britain as 'Naughts and Crosses’), called OXO
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1952Grace Hopper completes A-0: program that allows a computer user to use English-like words instead of numbers to give the computer instructions.
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1952Institute of Advanced Study computer: The notion of storing both data and instructions in memory became known as the ‘stored program concept’ to distinguish it from earlier methods of instructing a computer.
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1952IBM 726 Magnetic tape: Magnetic tape allows for inexpensive mass storage of information and is a key part of the computer revolution.
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1952CBS News borrows a UNIVAC to predict election Dwight D. Eisenhower election. Opinion polls predicted strong support for Stevenson, but the UNIVAC´s analysis showed a clear victory for Eisenhower.
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1953 DEVELOPMENTS
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1953Grimsdale and Webb build early transistorized computer: "Manchester TC", on November 16, 1953. The 48-bit machine used 92 point-contact transistors and 550 diodes.
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1953IBM ships its Model 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine: The 701 introduction also marked the beginning of IBM’s entry into the large-scale computer market, a market it came to dominate in later decades.
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1953John Backus completes Speedcode for IBM´s first large-scale scientific computer, the IBM 701
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1953RAND Corporation completes Johnniac computer: one of 17 computers that followed the basic design of Princeton's Institute of Advanced Study (IAS) computer.
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1953Johnniac computer: programs were created for Johnniac, including the time-sharing system JOSS that allowed many users to simultaneously access the machine.
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1953MIT’s Whirlwind becomes the first computer to use magnetic core memory. Core memory is made up of tiny “donuts” made of magnetic material strung on wires into a grid.
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1954 DEVELOPMENTS
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1954Alan Turing is found dead at age 42: Turing applied his mathematical genius to codebreaking efforts, including solving the riddle of the German ENIGMA encryption machine.
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1954IBM 650 magnetic drum calculator introduced: Spinning at 12,500 rpm, the 650´s magnetic data-storage drum allowed much faster access to stored information than other drum-based machines.
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1955 DEVELOPMENTS
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1955Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon and J.C. Shaw begin work on Logic Theorist: introduced several critical concepts to artificial intelligence including heuristics, list processing and ‘reasoning as search.’
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1955A commercial version of Alan Turing's Pilot ACE, called DEUCE: the Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine - is used mostly for science and engineering problems and a few commercial applications
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1955First meeting of IBM users group SHARE: The SHARE group was a means to exchange technical details about IBM computers among its users
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1956 DEVELOPMENTS
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1956Optical fiber invented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss
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1956Videocassette recorder invented by Ampex
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1956Direct keyboard input to computers: Flexowriter -- an electrically-controlled typewriter -- connected to an MIT computer could function as a keyboard input device due to its low cost and flexibility.
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1956Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson complete the Illiac Suite: one of the earliest pieces of music composed using an electronic computer.
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1956Librascope LGP-30 introduced: an early example of a ‘personal computer,’ that is, a computer made for a single user.
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1956MIT researchers build the TX-0: first general-purpose programmable computer built with transistors.
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1956RAMAC: The RAMAC disk drive consisted of 50 magnetically coated metal platters capable of storing about 5 million characters of data.
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1956Robby the Robot: Robby the Robot appears in MGM’s 1956 science fiction movie Forbidden Planet: The movie was a cult hit.
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1957 DEVELOPMENTS
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1957Sputnik I and Sputnik II: Sputnik I and Sputnik II are launched by the Russians
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1957Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) founded: DEC is founded initially to make electronic modules for test, measurement, prototyping and control markets.
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1957An IBM team led by John Backus develops FORTRAN: powerful scientific computing language that uses English-like statements: FORTRAN became most used language for scientific and technical computing.
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1957First computer scanned image on Standards Eastern Automatic Computer (SEAC):
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1957MATH-MATIC: Earlier work on the A-0 and A-2 compilers led to the development of the first English-language business data processing compiler, B-0 (FLOW-MATIC), also completed in 1957.
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1957Soviet Union (USSR) launched the first satellite ever, triggering events that led to creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA): strive for technological superiority in the hands of the United States
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1958 DEVELOPMENTS
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1958Silicon chip: The first integrated circuit, or silicon chip, is produced by the US Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce
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1958Phone companies develop digital transmission for internal uses – specifically to put more calls on each of the main lines connecting their own switching centers.
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1958Higinbotham develops Tennis-For-Two at Brookhaven National Labs: Tennis-for-Two was only used for two years before being salvaged for parts.
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1958Programming language LISP (List Processing) by John McCarthy: Key feature was that data and programs were simply lists in parentheses, allowing a program to treat another program, or itself, as data.
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1958RCA introduces its Model 501 transistorized computer: 501 built on a 'building block' concept: Allows it to simultaneously control up to 63 tape drives—very useful for large databases of information.
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1958SAGE Air Defense System: Network Pioneer: IBM-built (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) pioneers special-purpose form of networking and interactive computing and multi-user systems.
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1958SAGE system goes online: The first large-scale computer communications network, SAGE connects 23 hardened computer sites in the US and Canada.
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1958ARPA is Born: later renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Agency’s first three primary research thrusts focused on space technology, ballistic missile defense, and solid propellants
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1958Saturn V and Centaur Rockets: development of a liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LOX/LH2) upper-stage rocket known as Centaur, also transferred to the fledgling NASA: Used in upper stages of the Saturn rockets
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1959 DEVELOPMENTS
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1959MIT´s Servomechanisms Laboratory demonstrates computer assisted manufacturing (CAM): Automatically Programmed Tools project created a language, APT, used to control milling machine operations.
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1959Bryant Chucking Grinder Company magnetic disk drive: made up of a horizontal shaft with eight or more 39-inch magnesium disks
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1959Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart: concept of cross-references with the clickable link we use on the Web “hyperlink,” & “hypertext": Foundation for word processing, online collaboration, and hypertext links.
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1959SRI International designs ERMA (Electronic Recording Machine, Accounting), for Bank of America: A special scanner read account numbers preprinted on checks using magnetic ink character recognition.
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1959Integrated circuit invented by Robert Noyce, putting an entire electronic circuit on a tiny silicon chip
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1959(First) Television and Infrared Observations Satellites (TIROS) program became the prototype for the current global systems used for weather reporting, forecasting and research by the Defense Department...
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1959Electronically Steered Array Radar (ESAR) Program: develop low-cost, high-power tubes and phase shifters, extend component frequency ranges, increase bandwidth, apply digital techniques... Missiles...
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1960 DEVELOPMENTS
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1960Laser invented by Theodore Harold Maiman
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1960Pentagon team develop COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language): Over 200 billion lines of COBOL code was still in existence, accounting for 80% of all business software code.
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1960The PDP-1 computer system includes a cathode ray tube graphic display, paper tape input/output, needs no air conditioning and requires only one operator; all of which become standards for minicomputers.
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1960NEAC 2203 goes online: Early transistorized computer, the NEAC (Nippon Electric Automatic Computer) includes a CPU, console, paper tape reader and punch, printer and magnetic tape units
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1960C. A. R. Hoare develops Quicksort, an algorithm that would become one of the most used sorting methods in the world.
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1960Corona Reconnaissance Satellite: ow declassified Corona photo-reconnaissance program was jointly funded by DARPA and the Central Intelligence Agency.
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1960Materials Science: ARPA helped establish what now is the burgeoning field of materials science and engineering by announcing the first three contracts of the Agency’s Interdisciplinary Laboratory (IDL) program
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1960Transit Satellite: Space-based Navigation: satellite navigation systems. The system's surveying capabilities contributed to improving the accuracy of maps of the Earth's land areas
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1961 DEVELOPMENTS
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1961Uri Gagarin is the first man in space
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1961Optical disc invented by David Paul Gregg
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1961Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) is Demonstrated: Programs created for CTSS included RUNOFF, an early text formatting utility, and an early inter-user messaging system that presaged email.
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1961IBM 7030 (“Stretch”): IBM´s 7000 series of mainframe computers are the company´s first to use transistors: A special version, known as HARVEST, was developed for the US National Security Agency (NSA).
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1961IBM Introduces 1400 series: The 1401 mainframe, the first in the series, replaces earlier vacuum tube technology with smaller, more reliable transistors.
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1961Magnetostrictive delay lines: The Ferranti Sirius is announced. The Sirius was a small, low-cost business computer using a simple programming language. Its main memory was a magnetostrictive delay line.
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1961Max Mathews and Joan Miller use MUSIC IV to create Daisy Bell: John Kelly and Carol Lochbaum programmed the vocals, while Max Mathews programmed the accompaniment.
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1961Minuteman I missile guidance computer: Minuteman missiles use transistorized computers to continuously calculate their position in flight.
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1961Naval Tactical Data System: The US Navy Tactical Data System uses computers to integrate and display shipboard radar, sonar and communications data.
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1961Timesharing – the first online communities: many people can share a single computer, using terminals (often repurposed teleprinters) to log in over phone lines
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1961UNIMATE: First mass-produced industrial robot at General Motors obeying step-by-step commands stored on a magnetic drum: 4,000-pound robot arm sequenced and stacked hot pieces of die-cast metal.
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1961Leonard Kleinrock, MIT: "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets" (May 31) ((First paper on packet-switching (PS) theory))
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1961ARPA Midcourse Optical Station (AMOS): astronomical-quality observatory to obtain precise measurements and images of satellites, payloads, and other space objects re-entering the atmosphere from space.
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1961Project Agile: subprojects: (flamethrowers & M-16 assault rifle), rations, mobility and logistics in remote areas, communications, surveillance and target acquisition, defoliation, and psychological warfare.
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1962 DEVELOPMENTS
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1962Atlas computer: Virtual memory permitted a computer to use its storage capacity to switch rapidly among multiple programs or users and was a key requirement for timesharing.
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1962Card Random Access Memory (CRAM): The NCR 315 and several later NCR mainframes used this mechanically complex magnetic CRAM for secondary storage.
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1962IBM 1311 Disk Storage Drive: the first disk drive IBM made with a removable disk pack. Each pack weighed about ten pounds, held six disks, and had a capacity of 2 million characters.
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1962Kenneth Iverson’s book A Programming Language details a form of mathematical notation that he had developed in the late 1950s while an assistant professor at Harvard University.
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1962MIT LINC introduced: early and important example of a ‘personal computer,’ that is, a computer designed for only one user: LINC was later commercialized by DEC and sold as the LINC-8.
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1962Spacewar! debuts: DEC PDP-1 computer runs the space battle game Spacewar!
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1962The Atlas Computer debuts: Atlas was the fastest computer in the world at the time and introduced the concept of “virtual memory,” that is, using a disk or drum as an extension of main memory.
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1962Thin-film memory: faster variation on core memory: Small glass plates held tiny dots of magnetic metal film interconnected with printed drive and sense wires.
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1962J.C.R. Licklider & W. Clark, MIT: "On-Line Man Computer Communication" (August) ((Galactic Network concept encompassing distributed social interactions))
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1962DARPA’s Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) was born: (time-sharing, computer graphics, networking, advanced microprocessor design, parallel processing and artificial intelligence.)
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1962oN-Line System: With the arrival of the ARPA Network at SRI in 1969, the time-sharing technology that seemed practical with a small number of users became impractical over a distributed network...
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1963 DEVELOPMENTS
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1963Computer mouse invented by Douglas Engelbart
344
1963ASCII — American Standard Code for Information Interchange — permits machines from different manufacturers to exchange data. The ASCII code consisted of 128 unique strings of ones and zeros.
345
1963BEFLIX developed at Bell Labs: language for computer animation: create 252 by 184 pixel images and animations using 8 shades of gray: captured to film using a Stromberg-Carlson 4020 microfilm recorder.
346
1963DAC-1 computer aided design program is released: first commercially available Computer Aided Design program.
347
1963DECtape: reliable and inexpensive storage medium was used in several generations of DEC minicomputers.
348
1963Ivan Sutherland publishes Sketchpad: interactive, real-time computer drawing system.
349
1963The Rancho Arm: Arm´s six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm: among the first artificial robotic arms to be controlled by a computer.
350
1963Arecibo Observatory: large-scale ionospheric radar probe and how such an instrument might also serve in radioastronomy and other scientific fields (The observatory now is part of the NAIC)
351
1963ARPA Vela program developed sensors to detect nuclear explosions in space, the upper atmosphere, and underwater to support the 1963 Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
352
353
1964 DEVELOPMENTS
354
1964CDC 6600 supercomputer introduced: Control Data Corporation (CDC) 6600 performs up to 3 million instructions per second —three times faster than that of its closest competitor, the IBM 7030 supercomputer.
355
1964Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the PDP-8: first commercially successful minicomputer
356
1964IBM 2315 disk cartridge: easily transported “personal storage” for users of those small computers
357
1964IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive: stored up to 400 MB: Wide magnetic strips were plucked from bins and wrapped around a rotating cylinder for reading and writing.
358
1964IBM Pavilion at New York World's Fair: IBM hired architect Eero Saarinen to design a major pavilion, featuring the Information Machine, an attraction and film designed by filmmakers Charles and Ray Eames.
359
1964IBM announces System/360: IBM announced five models of System/360, spanning a 50-to-1 performance range - major event in the history of computing.
360
1964IBM introduces the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines: Running on dual IBM 7090 mainframes, SABRE was inspired by IBM’s work on the SAGE air-defense system.
361
1964Project TACT (Technical Automated Compatibility Testing): Computer dating begins in earnest with Project TACT
362
1964SABRE comes on-line: Eventually, SABRE expanded, even making airline reservations available via on-line services such as CompuServe, Genie, and America Online.
363
1964SABRE: Using telephone lines, SABRE links 2,000 terminals in 65 cities to a pair of IBM 7090 computers, delivering data on any flight in less than three seconds. It remains the basis of modern travel sites.
364
1964Teletype introduced its ASR-33 Teletype: low cost terminal for the Western Union communications network: inexpensive input and output device for minicomputers and the first generation of microcomputers.
365
1964Thomas Kurtz and John Kemeny create BASIC (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), an easy-to-learn programming language, for their students who had no prior programming experience.
366
1964Transformer Read Only Storage (TROS): Preceded solid-state ROM chips, and each bit of this read-only memory for microcode was a little magnetic transformer.
367
1964Paul Baran, RAND: "On Distributed Communications Networks" (Packet-switching networks; no single outage point)
368
1964First Computer Mouse: The mouse was an early example of many innovations that DARPA would help nurture into various components of the information technology landscape over the next five decades.
369
1964Project MAC: world’s first large-scale experiment in personal computing, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
370
371
1965 DEVELOPMENTS
372
19653C DDP-116 introduced: world's first commercial 16-bit minicomputer and 172 systems were sold. The basic computer cost $28,500.
373
1965Alphaville released: science fiction movie computer, which has gained sentience, controls Alphaville, and Caution must battle it using his two most dangerous weapons – his handgun and poetry!
374
1965DENDRAL artificial intelligence program: first “expert system.”: Designed to apply the accumulated expertise of specialists to problem solving. Its area of specialization was chemistry and physics.
375
1965IBM 2314 direct access storage facility: improvement over the 2311 disk storage drive: provided higher data storage density: Eight drives (plus a spare) w/ removable 29 MB disk packs shared one control unit.
376
1965Olivetti Programma 101 is released: printing programmable calculator was made from discrete transistors and an acoustic delay-line memory: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square roots.
377
1965Simula, an object-oriented language, is written by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl: In addition to simulation, Simula also has applications in computer graphics, process control, scientific data processing
378
1965The Orm robot (Norwegian for "snake") was an unusual air-powered robotic arm. It moved by inflating one or more of its 28 rubber bladders that were sandwiched between seven metal disks.
379
1965Victor 3900 desktop calculator: perform multiple functions and had a small, integrated CRT display.
380
1965ARPA sponsors study on "cooperative network of time-sharing computers"
381
1965TX-2 at MIT Lincoln Lab and AN/FSQ-32 at System Development Corporation (CA) are directly linked (without packet switches) via a dedicated 1200bps phone line
382
383
1966 DEVELOPMENTS
384
1966Carterfone: acoustically connects mobile radios to the telephone network: many uses—including later answering machines, faxes and modems.
385
1966HP introduces the HP 2116A (HP’s first computer): The 2116A also marked HP's first use of integrated circuits in a commercial product.
386
1966ILLIAC IV (large parallel processing computer): Computational speed of 200 million instructions per second and 1 billion bits per second of I/O transfer via a unique combination of its parallel architecture.
387
1966Joseph Weizenbaum finishes ELIZA: natural language processing environment: Famous mode "DOCTOR" responded to user questions much like a psychotherapist: able to trick some users to think human.
388
1966RCA announces its Spectra series of computers: The first large commercial computers to use integrated circuits, RCA highlights the IC's advantage over IBM’s custom SLT modules.
389
1966Ralph Baer designs the Brown Box: using a television to play games without requiring a computer, microprocessor, or software. (had a light gun accessory for playing shooting games)
390
1966Signetics 8-bit RAM: one of the earliest uses of dedicated semiconductor memory devices in computer systems.
391
1966First disk storage introduced by ffiM
392
1966Lawrence G. Roberts, MIT: "Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers" (October) ((First ARPANET plan))
393
1966Shakey the Robot: first mobile robot with enough artificial intelligence to navigate on its own through a set of rooms.
394
1966M16 Assault Rifle: Designed to fire small, high-velocity rounds, the weapon is relatively small and light, thereby significantly decreasing the overall load warfighters needed to carry.
395
396
1967 DEVELOPMENTS
397
1967Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) invented by John Shepherd-Barron
398
1967Hypertext invented by Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson
399
1967Star Trek debuts with multiple computation devices: The technologies displayed influenced generations of filmmakers, writers, and especially technologists.
400
1967The IBM 1360 Photo-Digital Storage System is installed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: used sophisticated error correction and a pneumatic robot to move the film strips to and from a storage unit.
401
1967LOGO: computer language for children: Initially a drawing program: control the actions of a mechanical "turtle" which traced its path with pen on paper: Turtles made their designs on a video display monitor.
402
1967ARPANET design discussions held by Larry Roberts at ARPA IPTO PI meeting in Ann Arbor, Michigan (April)
403
1967ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles in Gatlinburg, Tennessee (First design paper on ARPANET published by Larry Roberts: "Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication)
404
1967National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Middlesex, England develops NPL Data Network under Donald Watts Davies who coins the term packet. The NPL network, an experiment in packet-switching, 768kbps lines
405
1967QT-2 quiet aircraft: develop a quiet, propeller-driven aircraft -- Army advanced version of the quiet aircraft, the YO-3A.
406
407
1968 DEVELOPMENTS
408
1968Video game console invented by Ralph H. Baer
409
1968 "GO TO considered harmful" published: fires the first salvo in the structured programming wars: called for abolishing the unrestricted GOTO statements used in higher-level languages.
410
1968Based on the short story The Sentinel, Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey tells the story of the HAL 9000 computer as it malfunctions during the Discovery One spaceship's trip to Jupiter.
411
1968Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) makes its debut: years of work to reduce the size of the Apollo spacecraft computer from the size of seven refrigerators side-by-side to a compact unit weighing only 70 lbs
412
1968CICS (Customer Information Control System): IBM transaction processing system: allowed online transaction processing: greatly sped up the way that companies interacted with their customers.
413
1968Data General Corporation introduces the Nova Minicomputer: 32 KB of memory and sold for $8,000.
414
1968IBM “Minnow” floppy disk drive: read-only floppy disk drive designed to load microcode into the controller for the "Merlin" (IBM 3330) Direct Access Storage Facility.
415
1968Multiplexers: Cramming More Users onto the Same Line: up to 15 terminals share the same line, by assigning each of them a particular frequency (Frequency Division Multiplexing).
416
1968SHRDLU natural language: natural language used in artificial intelligence research: able to combine syntax, meaning and deductive reasoning.
417
1968The Mother of All Demos: unveil their experimental ‘oNline System’ at a computing conference in San Francisco in what will become known as the ‘mother of all demos.’
418
1968The Tentacle Arm: moves like an octopus. Twelve joints to reach around obstacles. A DEC PDP-6 computer controls the arm, powered by hydraulic fluids. Mounted on a wall, it could lift the weight of a person.
419
1968PS-network presented to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
420
1968Request for quotation for ARPANET (29 Jul) sent out in August; responses received in September
421
1968University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) awarded Network Measurement Center contract in October
422
1968Network Working Group (NWG), headed by Steve Crocker, loosely organized to develop host level protocols for communication over the ARPANET.
423
1968Tymnet built as part of Tymshare service
424
1968Explosive Forming: use explosives for forming metal parts for aerospace applications: underwater process relied on a mold for the part over which was placed a plate of the metal alloy to be used.
425
426
1969 DEVELOPMENTS
427
1969The moon landing - Neil Armstrong sets foot on the moon
428
1969Apollo Guidance Computer read-only rope memory: read-only rope memory is launched into space aboard the Apollo 11 mission, which carried American astronauts to the Moon and back.
429
1969Hooking up – networks come online: ARPAnet is the first large-scale, general-purpose computer network to connect different kinds of computers together. But others come online within weeks or months.
430
1969Kenneth Thompson and Dennis Ritchie develop UNIX operating system on a spare DEC minicomputer.
431
1969SIGGRAPH is founded: Association for Computer Machinery Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH) has become one of the most influential groups in computing
432
1969The RS-232-C standard is adopted: standard permits computers and peripheral devices to transmit information serially — that is, one bit at a time.
433
1969Victor Scheinman´s Stanford Arm: first successful electrically powered, computer-controlled robot arm.
434
1969Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) awarded Packet Switch contract to build Interface Message Processors (IMPs) in January
435
1969US Senator Edward Kennedy sends a congratulatory telegram to BBN for its million-dollar ARPA contract to build the "Interfaith" Message Processor, and thanking them for their ecumenical efforts
436
1969ARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking
437
1969Nodes are stood up as BBN builds each IMP [Honeywell DDP-516 mini computer with 12K of memory]; AT&T provides lines bundled to 50kbps ((4 Nodes))
438
1969First Request for Comment (RFC): "Host Software" by Steve Crocker (7 April)
439
1969RFC 4: Network Timetable
440
1969First packets sent by Charley Kline at UCLA as he tried logging into SRI. The first attempt resulted in the system crashing as the letter G of LOGIN was entered. (October 29)
441
1969Univ of Michigan, Michigan State and Wayne State Univ establish X.25-based Merit network for students, faculty, alumni
442
1969ARPA research played a central role in launching the “Information Revolution,”: conceptual basis for ARPANET, a pioneering network for sharing digital resources among geographically separated computers.
443
1969Compact Turbofan Engines: brought it to the attention of the U.S. Air Force, for which the engine demonstrated excellent horizontal flight characteristics.
444
1969Torpedo Propulsion: Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System (SCEPS), was applicable to the high-power, short-duration mission of a torpedo (lithium-based thermal energy system)
445
446
1970 DEVELOPMENTS
447
1970Amdahl Corporation introduces the Amdahl 470: company’s first product and ran the same software as IBM System/370 computers but cost less and was smaller and faster.
448
1970Banking Automation Reaches the Customer: revolutionized behind-the-scenes check processing in the 1950s, spawning the funny letters still at the bottom of checks today.
449
1970First IBM computer to use semiconductor memory: The Model 145 could store an equivalent amount of data in half the space, compared to a computer using core memory.
450
1970Pascal programming language is introduced: applicable to both commercial and scientific applications, and which could also be used to teach programming techniques to college students.
451
1970Shakey the robot: first mobile robot controlled by artificial intelligence: driven by a problem-solving program called STRIPS, it found its way around the halls with information about its environment to a route.
452
1970First publication of the original ARPANET Host-Host protocol: C.S. Carr, S. Crocker, V.G. Cerf, "HOST-HOST Communication Protocol in the ARPA Network," in AFIPS Proceedings of SJCC
453
1970First report on ARPANET at AFIPS: "Computer Network Development to Achieve Resource Sharing" (March)
454
1970ALOHAnet, the first packet radio network, developed by Norman Abramson, Univ of Hawaii, becomes operational (July)
455
1970ARPANET hosts start using Network Control Protocol (NCP), first host-to-host protocol
456
1970First cross-country link installed by AT&T between UCLA and BBN at 56kbps. This line is later replaced by another between BBN and RAND. A second line is added between MIT and Utah
457
1970Beryllium Mirror Research: developing materials-processing techniques (powder metallurgy, hot isostatic processing, pressureless sintering) for making it possible to fabricate large beryllium structures.
458
1970Camp Sentinel Radar: penetrated foliage to detect infiltrators near U.S. deployments and was a fast turnaround,Vietnam-era development of advanced technology.
459
460
1971 DEVELOPMENTS
461
1971E-mail invented by Ray Tomlinson
462
1971Liquid Crystal Display invented by James Fergason
463
1971Pocket calculator invented by Sharp Corporation
464
1971Floppy Disk invented by David Noble with IBM
465
1971Computer Space is released: one of the earliest electronic arcade games. Using no microprocessor, RAM, or ROM, Computer Space was a simple technical design that still allowed for complex gameplay,
466
1971Europe and the First Mass-Market “Webs”: Web-like information systems that use televisions for display. The two latter systems, based on work by Philips, broadcast data on an unused portion of the TV signal.
467
1971First Kenbak-1 is sold: One of the earliest personal computers, the Kenbak-1 is advertised for $750 in Scientific American magazine.
468
1971Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP-35: solid-state memory similar to that of a computer: performed logarithmic and trigonometric functions, stored intermediate solutions, accepted entries in scientific notation.
469
1971Honeywell vs. Sperry Rand trial: Ruling placed the idea for the electronic digital computer in the public domain: any company could pursue computer design and manufacture without having to pay royalties.
470
1971ILLIAC IV supercomputer: Processing Element Memory (PEM), 6,834 bytes, was in each of ILLIAC IV’s 64 processors: first commercial use of commodity semiconductor memory in a large computer system.
471
19711 KB Intel 1103 memory chip marks the beginning of the end for magnetic core memory and ushers in the era of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) integrated circuits for main memory in computers.
472
1971Intel introduces the first microprocessor: The first advertisement for a microprocessor, the Intel 4004, appears in Electronic News.
473
1971Laser printer invented at Xerox PARC: world’s first laser printer, launching a new era in computer printing, generating billions of dollars in revenue for Xerox.
474
1971Networked Email: Tomlinson, Beranek, and Newman choose the now-iconic “@” sign for his networked email protocol on the ARPAnet and by 1973.
475
1971Microprocessor invented by Marcian Hoff
476
197115 nodes (23 hosts): UCLA, SRI, UCSB, Univ of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND, SDC, Harvard, Lincoln Lab, Stanford, UIU(C), CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames
477
1971BBN starts building IMPs using the cheaper Honeywell 316. IMPs however are limited to 4 host connections, and so BBN develops a terminal IMP (TIP) that supports up to 64 terminals (September)
478
1971Ray Tomlinson invents email program to send messages across a distributed network: Original program derived from an intra-machine email program (SENDMSG) and a file transfer program (CPYNET)
479
1971Project Gutenberg is started by Michael Hart with the purpose of making copyright-free works, including books, electronically available. The first text is the US Declaration of Independence
480
1971Anti-Submarine Warfare: LAMBDA program to modify oil-industry-designed seismic towed arrays to detect submarines: leading-edge computational tools, satellite-based data linkages, and computer networking
481
1971Glassy Carbon: material with an exceptionally porous, high surface area combined with high rigidity, low resistance to fluid flow, and resistance to very high temperatures in a non-oxidizing environment.
482
483
1972 DEVELOPMENTS
484
1972C programming language is released: C based on the earlier language BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) and soon after re-wrote the source code for Unix in C.
485
1972LUNAR natural language information retrieval system: helped geologists access, compare and evaluate chemical-analysis data on moon rock and soil composition from the Apollo 11 mission.
486
1972Pong is released: Pong would revolutionize the arcade industry and launch the modern video game era.
487
1972SuperPaint is completed: first digital computer drawing system to use a frame buffer: animations, in 16.7 million colors, had adjustable paintbrushes, video magnification, and used a graphics tablet for drawing.
488
1972Ray Tomlinson (BBN) modifies email program for ARPANET where it becomes a quick hit. The @ sign was chosen from the punctuation keys on Tomlinson's Model 33 Teletype for its "at" meaning (March)
489
1972Larry Roberts writes first email management program (RD) to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages (July)
490
1972International Conference on Computer Communications (ICCC) at Washington D.C. Hilton with demonstration of ARPANET between 40 machines and the Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) organizer Bob Kahn
491
1972First computer-to-computer chat takes place at UCLA, and is repeated during ICCC, as psychotic PARRY (at Stanford) discusses its problems with the Doctor (at BBN).
492
1972International Network Working Group (INWG) formed in October as a result of a meeting at ICCC identifying the need for a combined effort in advancing networking technologies.
493
1972Louis Pouzin leads the French effort to build its own ARPANET - CYCLADES
494
1972RFC 318: Telnet specification
495
1972Advanced Aircraft Materials: development of rare-earth permanent magnets with magnetic strengths far stronger than conventional magnetic materials and, in some cases, over larger operational conditions
496
1972ARPA Becomes DARPA: gained a “D” when it was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
497
1972Gallium Arsenide: research into the semiconductor material gallium arsenide, which could host faster transistors operating at higher power than could silicon: gave otherwise unguided high-precision capabilities
498
499
1973 DEVELOPMENTS
500
1973Ethernet invented by Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs
501
1973Personal computer invented by Xerox PARC
502
1973Birth of modern mobile networks: ARPA funds the outfitting of a packet radio research van at SRI to develop standards for a Packet Radio Network (PRNET).
503
1973Dean Koontz publishes Demon Seed: most influential computer horror stories ever written. It told the story of the computer Proteus and its dangerous obsession with Susan, a wealthy recluse.
504
1973IBM 3340 data module: Winchester technology drive arrays were IBM’s last storage system with large removable disk packs.
505
1973Special Computer APL Machine Portable (SCAMP) personal computer: IBM’s first personal computer, designed to run APL programming language in a compact, briefcase-like enclosure.
506
1973Inventing the Internet: creating “networks of networks,” a process called internetworking or internetting: influence the development of ARPA’s TCP/IP internetworking protocol.
507
1973Linking the Office: Ethernet and Local Networks: Ethernet adapts techniques from the wireless ALOHAnet to treat cables as a passive medium, like the air (“ether”) between radio stations.
508
1973Micral is released: Micral is one of the earliest commercial, non-kit personal computers: replacement for minicomputers in situations that did not require high performance.
509
1973The TV Typewriter plans are published: easy-to-build kit that can display alphanumeric information on an ordinary television set.
510
1973Wang Laboratories releases the Wang 2200: used a built-in CRT, cassette tape for storage, and ran the programming language BASIC.
511
1973First international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) via NORSAR (Norway)
512
1973Bob Metcalfe's Harvard PhD Thesis outlines idea for Ethernet. The concept was tested on Xerox PARC's Alto computers, and the first Ethernet network called the Alto Aloha System (May)
513
1973Bob Kahn poses Internet problem, starts Internetting research program at ARPA. Vinton Cerf sketches gateway architecture in March on back of envelope in a San Francisco hotel lobby
514
1973Cerf and Kahn present basic Internet ideas at INWG in September at Univ of Sussex, Brighton, UK
515
1973RFC 454: File Transfer specification
516
1973Network Voice Protocol (NVP) specification (RFC 741) and implementation enabling conference calls over ARPAnet.
517
1973SRI (NIC) begins publishing ARPANET News in March; number of ARPANET users estimated at 2,000
518
1973ARPA study shows email composing 75% of all ARPANET traffic
519
1973Christmas Day Lockup - Harvard IMP hardware problem leads it to broadcast zero-length hops to any ARPANET destination, causing all other IMPs to send their traffic to Harvard (25 December)
520
1973RFC 527: ARPAWOCKY
521
1973RFC 602: The Stockings Were Hung by the Chimney with Care
522
1973TCP/IP: creation of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), most often seen together as TCP/IP. These protocols remain a mainstay of the Internet’s underlying technical foundation
523
524
1974 DEVELOPMENTS
525
1974La Faim (Hunger) debuts: Using the animation concept of key frame animation: designed a program where computer filled the gaps, producing an effect that made the images seem to glide from one to another.
526
1974IBM 3850 mass storage system: largest 3850 storage system held 4,720 cartridges, stored 236 GB, and was 20 feet long. IBM claimed online magnetic disk storage was ten times more costly than the 3850.
527
1974IBM announces SNA (Systems Network Architecture): set of protocols designed for less centralized networks. SNA will evolve into an internet-like network of networks (reserved for those SNA compliant.)
528
1974The first commercially advertised US computer based on a microprocessor (the Intel 8008,) the Scelbi has 4 KB of internal memory and a cassette tape interface, as well as Teletype and oscilloscope interfaces.
529
1974The Mark-8 “Do-It-Yourself” kit appears in the pages of Radio-Electronics: Plans for the Mark-8 cost $5 and the blank circuit boards were available for $50.
530
1974The Silver Arm: a robotic arm to do small-parts assembly using feedback from delicate touch and pressure sensors. The arm´s fine movements approximate those of human fingers.
531
1974Xerox PARC Alto introduced: groundbreaking computer with wide influence on the computer industry: Apple’s inspiration for the Lisa and Macintosh computers came from the Xerox Alto.
532
1974Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication" which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Program (TCP). [IEEE Trans Comm]
533
1974BBN opens Telenet, the first public packet data service (a commercial version of ARPANET)
534
535
1975 DEVELOPMENTS
536
1975Commercial Networks Multiply: number of commercial networks for corporate customers and professionals to choose from...
537
1975Community Memory: Anyone can walk up and use this terminal, connected to a timeshared mainframe computer, for posting messages and announcements.
538
1975DEC RL01: attempt to lower maintenance costs while bolstering disk drive reliability. It was initially released with a 5 MB capacity, and two years later a 10 MB version.
539
1975MITS Altair 8800 kit appears in Popular Electronics: MITS co-founder Ed Roberts invented the Altair 8800 — which sold for $297, or $395 with a case — and coined the term “personal computer”.
540
1975MOS 6502 is introduced: low-cost microprocessor (cost of $25, far less than comparable processors from Intel and Motorola, leading some attendees to believe that the company was perpetrating a hoax.)
541
1975Southwest Technical Products introduces the SWTPC 6800: SWTPC introduces many computer kits based on the Motorola 6800, and later, the 6809 (6800 proved the most popular.)
542
1975Tandem Computers releases the Tandem-16: first commercial fault-tolerant computers (eventually led to the “Non-Stop” series of systems, which were used for early ATMs and to monitor stock trades.)
543
1975The Video Display Module (VDM) marks the first implementation of a memory-mapped alphanumeric video display for personal computers: enabled the use of personal computers for interactive games.
544
1975Operational management of Internet transferred to DCA (now DISA)
545
1975First ARPANET mailing list, MsgGroup, is created by Steve Walker. Einar Stefferud soon took over as moderator as the list was not automated at first. A science fiction list, SF-Lovers - Become most popular...
546
1975John Vittal develops MSG, the first all-inclusive email program providing replying, forwarding, and filing capabilities.
547
1975Satellite links cross two oceans (to Hawaii and UK) as the first TCP tests are run over them by Stanford, BBN, and UCL
548
1975"Jargon File", by Raphael Finkel at SAIL, first released
549
1975Shockwave Rider by John Brunner
550
1975Ceramic Turbine: successful demonstration of ceramics in a gas turbine environment led to the establishment of ceramic programs in virtually every automotive or engine company in the world...
551
552
1976 DEVELOPMENTS
553
1976CP/M is developed: first commercially successful operating system for microcomputers
554
1976Cray-1 supercomputer introduced: speed from its shape, a "C," (reduces the length of wires and thus the time signals need to travel) High packaging density of integrated circuits and a novel Freon cooling...
555
1976Intel 8080 and Zilog Z-80 (new microprocessors): Five times faster than its predecessor, the 8008, the Intel 8080 could address four times as many bytes for a total of 64 kilobytes.
556
1976Japanese manufactured dynamic random-access memory (DRAM): (decimating American memory suppliers and provoking the U.S. government to threaten trade sanctions) - Korea overtook later...
557
1976Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom sends out an e-mail on March 26 from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern as a part of a demonstration of networking technology.
558
1976Shigeo Hirose´s Soft Gripper robot can conform to the shape of a grasped object, such as a wine glass filled with flowers (Technology grew from his studies of flexible structures in nature).
559
1976Steve Wozniak completes the Apple-1: (single-board computer for hobbyists)
560
1976Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom sends out an email on 26 March from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern
561
1976UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX one year later.
562
1976Multiprocessing Pluribus IMPs are deployed
563
564
1977 DEVELOPMENTS
565
1977Star Wars (Death Star Briefing): the Death Star briefing, featured a wire-frame version of the space station, one of the first uses of wire-frame animation in a major motion picture.
566
1977Apple II introduced: with main logic board, switching power supply, keyboard, case, manual, game paddles, and cassette tape containing the game Breakout, the Apple-II finds popularity far beyond the hobbyists
567
1977Atari launches the Video Computer System game console: first widely successful video game system, selling more than twenty million units throughout the 1980s (sed the 8-bit MOS 6507 microprocessor)
568
1977C3PO and R2D2 in Star Wars: C3PO's companion robot, R2D2, served as a mechanic, computer interface specialist and co-pilot for the film’s main protagonist Luke Skywalker.
569
1977Commodore 1530 Datasette: primary storage device for the Commodore PET. The device converted digital information from the computer into analog sound signals which were stored on compact cassettes.
570
1977ROM chips: Atari Video Computer System (VCS) - one of the first successful consoles that used interchangeable cartridges with factory programmed ROM chips to store the software.
571
1977Tandy Radio Shack introduces its TRS-80: included a Z80 microprocessor, video display, 4 KB of memory, a built-in BASIC programming language interpreter, cassette storage, and easy-to-understand manuals
572
1977The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) introduced: omes fully assembled with either 4 or 8 KB of memory, a built-in cassette tape drive, and a membrane keyboard (School success).
573
1977THEORYNET created by Larry Landweber at Univ of Wisconsin providing electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed email system over TELENET)
574
1977RFC 733: Mail specification
575
1977Tymshare spins out Tymnet under pressure from TELENET. Both go on to develop X.25 protocol standard for virtual circuit style packet switching
576
1977First demonstration of ARPANET/SF Bay Packet Radio Net/Atlantic SATNET operation of Internet protocols with BBN-supplied gateways in July
577
1977HAVE BLUE and Stealth Technology: technologies for reducing radar detectability, including the reduction of radar cross section through a combination of shaping and radar absorbent materials
578
579
1978 DEVELOPMENTS
580
1978First computers installed in the White House: Staffers were given terminals to access a shared Hewlett-Packard HP3000 computer, and the technology department acquired a Xerox Alto for the Oval Office.
581
1978LaserDisc: better audio and video quality than its competitors, but LaserDisc players were prohibitively expensive for many consumers (Now obsolete, it was the direct forerunner of the CD and DVD).
582
1978Shugart 5 ¼-inch flexible disk drive: small enough to use with a desktop computer, since 8-inch floppy drives were considered too large for that purpose.
583
1978Speak & Spell: talking learning aid for children aged 7 and up. Its debut marked the first electronic duplication of the human vocal tract on a single integrated circuit.
584
1978The DEC VAX introduced (Called a “complex instruction set computer,”): systems were backward compatible and so preserved the investment owners of previous DEC computers had in software.
585
1978WordStar is created: Among the first popular word processing systems for personal computers, WordStar originally ran on the CP/M operating system, and later on DOS and Windows.
586
1978TCP split into TCP and IP (March)
587
1978Possibly the first commercial spam message is sent on 1 May by a DEC marketer advertising an upcoming presentation of its new DECSYSTEM-20 computers
588
1978RFC 748: TELNET RANDOMLY-LOSE Option
589
1978Assault Breaker: laid the technological foundation for several smart-weapon systems that were ultimately fielded. Among these systems are the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS)...
590
1978Excimer Lasers: project yielded an efficient laser-receiver and a narrowband, matched-wavelength excimer-Raman converter laser system (Used for underwater communication / signaling)...
591
1978Hubble Telescope Assist: DARPA funded the design, fabrication, delivery and installation of two antenna booms for the Hubble Space Telescope to demonstrate the advantages of metal-matrix composites.
592
593
1979 DEVELOPMENTS
594
1979Atari introduces two microcomputers with game capabilities: the Model 400 and Model 800: (influential in the arts, especially in the emerging DemoScene culture of the 1980s and '90s.)
595
1979Bubble memory: Each silver square, or "bubble," on this board stored 1 Mbit. ((The introduction of cheaper, faster and higher density memory solutions rendered bubble memory obsolete.))
596
1979“Personal computer revolution” begins to push back against the centralized control of network system administrators, a trend that won't fully reverse until the 2000s and the emergence of “the cloud.”...
597
1979First Multi-User Domain (or Dungeon), MUD1, goes on-line: allows many people to play against each other on-line.
598
1979Motorola introduces the 68000 microprocessor: high performance processor found its place in powerful work stations intended for graphics-intensive programs common in engineering.
599
1979Rise of Online Services and BBSs: subset are subscribing to early online services like MicroNet and The Source, or connecting to Bulletin Board Services (BBSs) hosted on somebody else’s minicomputer or PC.
600
1979Rise of Professional and Geek Networks: Continue expanding “techie” online communities like Usenet (a message board conceived by Duke students) and BITNET (a network for file and email exchange)...
601
1979Texas Instruments TI 99/4 is released: Based around the Texas Instruments TMS 9900 microprocessor running at 3 MHz, the TI 99/4 has one of the fastest CPUs available in a home computer.
602
1979The Stanford Cart: successfully crossed a room on its own while navigating around a chair placed as an obstacle.
603
1979Visicalc is developed: program that turned the personal computer into a business machine - automated the recalculation of spreadsheets, allowing users to ask “What if?” questions of their financial information.
604
1979Worms (Media): a short program that searches a network for idle processors - Worm has the unintended effect of invading networked computers, creating a security threat...
605
1979Meeting between Univ of Wisconsin, DARPA, National Science Foundation (NSF), and computer scientists from many universities to establish a Computer Science Department research computer network
606
1979USENET established using UUCP between Duke and UNC by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis, and Steve Bellovin. All original groups were under NET.* hierarchy.
607
1979First MUD, MUD1, by Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw at U of Essex
608
1979ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB)
609
1979Packet Radio Network (PRNET) experiment starts with DARPA funding. Most communications take place between mobile vans. ARPANET connection via SRI.
610
1979On April 12, Kevin MacKenzie emails the MsgGroup a suggestion of adding some emotion back into the dry text medium of email, such as -) for indicating a sentence was tongue-in-cheek.
611
612
1980 DEVELOPMENTS
613
1980Commodore introduces the VIC-20: home computer as the successor to the Commodore PET personal computer (Less expensive): becoming the first computer to sell more than a million units.
614
1980Enquire: networked hypertext system used for project management but with far greater ambitions. (seeks to categorize hyperlinks in a way that can be read by computers as well as people.)
615
1980Seagate ST506 hard disk drive: (first hard disk drive for microcomputers): held 5 megabytes of data, five times as much as a standard floppy disk, and fit in the space of a floppy disk drive.
616
1980The Sinclair ZX80 introduced: very small home computer is available in the UK as a kit for £79 or pre-assembled for £99. Inside was a Z80 microprocessor and a built-in BASIC language interpreter.
617
1980QDOS. (Quick and· Disk Operating System) introduced by Seattle Computer Products, later renamed MS-DOS by Microsoft
618
1980ARPANET grinds to a complete halt on 27 October because of an accidentally-propagated status-message virus
619
1980First C/30-based IMP at BBN
620
1980Aluminum-Lithium Alloys: developed the welding techniques for the 80/90 Al/Li alloy and applied it to the construction of space hardware.
621
1980Defense Sciences Office Founded: ombining the Nuclear Monitoring Research Office, materials science research, and cybernetic technology efforts into a single office. ((Also MTO and BTO))...
622
1980Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL): massive megawatt device that relied on rocket-engine-like combustion and that first lased in 1980, and the Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL).
623
624
1981 DEVELOPMENTS
625
19813 ½-inch floppy drive: Hewlett-Packard adopted: event which was critical in establishing momentum for the format and which helped it prevail over the other contenders for the microfloppy standard
626
1981The Computer Programme (BBC): Acorn produces a popular computer, the BBC Microcomputer System, so viewers at home could follow along on their own home computers as they watched the program.
627
1981Apollo Computer unveils its first workstation, its DN100: based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, high-resolution display and built-in networking: Apollo was a leading innovator in the workstation field
628
1981Arnie Katz, Joyce Worley-Katz, and Bill Kunkle form first video game magazine, Electronic Games
629
1981IBM introduces PC: IBM Model 5150 (4.77 MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor) used Microsoft´s MS-DOS operating system: Revolutionized business computing - first PC to gain widespread adoption by industry.
630
1981MS-DOS released with the IBM PC: MS-DOS, or Microsoft Disk Operating System, the basic software for the newly released IBM PC, is the start of a long partnership between IBM and Microsoft
631
1981Osborne 1 introduced: first mass-produced portable computer. Its price was especially attractive as the computer included very useful productivity software worth about $1,500 alone.
632
1981The First Mass “Web”: France Telecom offers free Minitel terminals to every phone subscriber, launching first mass “Web.” online services such as newspapers, train schedules, tax filing, and erotic classified ads
633
1981The direct drive arm: prototype for DD arms used in industry today: DD arms were fast and accurate because they minimize friction and backlash.
634
1981BITNET, the "Because It’s Time NETwork": Started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York -Provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information, as well as file transfers
635
1981CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) built: to provide networking services (especially email) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET: Later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network.
636
1981C/30 IMPs predominate the network; first C/30 TIP at SAC
637
1981Minitel (Teletel) is deployed across France by France Telecom.
638
1981True Names by Vernor Vinge
639
1981RFC 801: NCP/TCP Transition Plan
640
1981Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS): Developed from moving target indication (MTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to analyze areas for which the MTI radar could not detect
641
1981MOSIS Semiconductor Service: To hasten development in the microelectronics arena of very large-scale integration (VLSI), DARPA funded Metal Oxide Silicon Implementation Service, or MOSIS.
642
1981No-Tail-Rotor (NOTAR) Helicopter: resulting in significantly quieter helicopters that could operate with a lower chance of detection.
643
644
1982 DEVELOPMENTS
645
1982TIME announces “Machine of the Year”: TIME magazine alters its annual tradition of naming a "Man of the Year," choosing instead to name the personal computer its "Machine of the Year."
646
1982Automating the office: LAN operating systems: “network operating systems,” including Novell Netware, and built-in solutions like Apple’s AppleTalk. In the 1990s, Internet protocols will replace them all.
647
1982Commodore introduces the Commodore 64: sold more than 22 million units. It is recognized by the 2006 Guinness Book of World Records as the greatest selling single computer of all time.
648
1982Apple II “clones”: Franklin's Ace 1000 main logic board is nearly identical to that in the Apple II+ computer: (Undercut Apple's pricing even while offering some features not available on the original.)
649
1982ILM produces The Genesis Effect for Star Trek II – The Wrath of Khan: features one of the most groundbreaking segments in the history of early computer graphics, The Genesis Effect.
650
1982Internetting as a Business: Bolt Beranek and Newman, which had built the original IMP and designed important parts of the ARPAnet, had also been a key participant in ARPA’s 1977 internetworking experiments
651
1982Mitch Kapor develops Lotus 1-2-3: software suite for the IBM PC based on a word processor, spreadsheet, and database (first “killer application” for the IBM PC).
652
1982Movie Tron released: use of computer-generated graphics in movies takes a big step forward with Disney´s release of Tron (One of the first movies to use such graphics).
653
1982Sun Microsystems is founded: Sun helped cement the model of a workstation having an Ethernet interface as well as high-resolution graphics and the UNIX operating system.
654
1982The FRED robot: The “Friendly Robotic Educational Device” (FRED), designed for 6-15 year-olds, never made it to market.
655
1982The IBM 7535: controlled by an IBM PC and programmed in IBM’s AML (“A Manufacturing Language”). It could manipulate objects weighing up to 13 pounds.
656
1982Norway leaves network to become an Internet connection via TCP/IP over SATNET; UCL does the same
657
1982DCA and ARPA establish the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET.
658
1982(TCP) and (IP) lead to one of the first definitions of an "internet" as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and "Internet" as connected TCP/IP internets.
659
1982EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide email and USENET services. (original connections between the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and UK)
660
1982Exterior Gateway Protocol (RFC 827) specification. EGP is used for gateways between networks.
661
1982Tacit Blue (stealth technology): first practical combat stealth aircraft: later contracted to scale-up engineering development of what become the F-117 and which became operational in October 1983.
662
663
1983 DEVELOPMENTS
664
1983Camcorder invented by Sony
665
1983Apple introduces the Lisa computer: first commercial personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) - making it the new paradigm for personal computing.
666
1983Bernoulli Box: Cartridge-based system that used hard disk technology: Type of removable storage that allowed people to move large files between computers when few alternatives (such as a network) existed.
667
1983CD-ROM: Able to hold 550 megabytes of pre-recorded data, the CD was developed by Sony and Philips in 1982 for distributing music.
668
1983Compaq Computer Corporation introduces the Compaq Portable: first 100% IBM PC-compatible computer (runs the same software as the IBM PC.)
669
1983HSC50 capable of managing the physical activity of drives, optimizing subsystem throughput, detecting and correcting physical errors, and performing diagnostic execution without host intervention.
670
1983Lucasfilm produces The Road to Point Reyes: One of the most significant static images in the history of computer graphics, The Road to Point Reyes is one of Lucasfilm's most important early projects.
671
1983Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) introduced at first North American Music Manufacturers (NAMM) show: industry-standard electronic interface that links computers with electronic musical instruments
672
1983Microsoft introduces Word (originally called Multi-Tool Word) - was not until Microsoft Word for Windows was introduced in 1989 that it became a global standard.
673
1983Richard Stallman develops GNU (Gnu's Not Unix): free alternative to the popular Unix operating system. - provided the necessary tools for creating another Unix-type system known as Linux.
674
1983Name server developed at Univ of Wisconsin, no longer requiring users to know the exact path to other systems
675
1983Cutover from NCP to TCP/IP (1 January)
676
1983No more Honeywell or Pluribus IMPs; TIPs replaced by TACs (terminal access controller)
677
1983Stuttgart and Korea get connected
678
1983Movement Information Net (MINET) started early in the year in Europe, connected to Internet in Sept
679
1983CSNET / ARPANET gateway put in place
680
1983ARPANET split into ARPANET and MILNET; the latter became integrated with the Defense Data Network created the previous year. 68 of the 113 existing nodes went to MILNET
681
1983Desktop workstations come into being, many with Berkeley UNIX (4.2 BSD) which includes IP networking software
682
1983Networking needs switch from having a single, large time sharing computer connected to the Internet at each site, to instead connecting entire local networks
683
1983Internet Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing ICCB
684
1983EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established. Very similar to the way BITNET works with a gateway funded by IBM-Europe
685
1983FidoNet developed by Tom Jennings
686
1983Miniaturized GPS Receivers: gallium arsenide hybrid chip that allowed for combined analog and digital functionality and the first “all-digital” GPS receivers.
687
688
1984 DEVELOPMENTS
689
1984Apple 1984 commercial debuts: The commercial, shown only once, is considered a major turning point in the marketing of computers.
690
1984Apple Computer launches the Macintosh: first successful mouse-driven computer with a graphical user interface and was based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor.
691
1984CD-ROMs introduced, multimedia takes off: affordable computer CD-ROM drives will enable multimedia encyclopedias, games, novels and reference information on CD, often with hypertext links for navigation.
692
1984CompacTape: evolved into Digital Linear Tape (DLT), and was widely used in medium and large-sized Local Area Networks.
693
1984Fujio Masuoka invents flash memory: Capable of being erased and re-programmed multiple times, flash memory quickly gained a loyal following in the computer memory industry.
694
1984Hero Jr. robot kit: Hero Jr. could roam hallways guided by sonar, play games, sing songs and even act as an alarm clock.
695
1984IBM 3480 cartridge tape system: sought to replace the traditional reels of magnetic tape in the computer center with a 4-inch by 5-inch cartridge that held more information (200MB) and offered faster access to it
696
1984IBM releases its PC Jr. and PC/AT: hile the PC Jr. sold poorly, the PC/AT sold in the millions. It offered increased performance and storage capacity over the original IBM PC and sold for about $4,000
697
1984Matlab (Matrix Laboratory), a high-level programming language, is released...
698
1984OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) standard published: Protocol Wars: first with international backing, and support from the International Standards Organization as an official standard.
699
1984Term ‘cyberspace’ coined: In his novel Neuromancer, William Gibson coins the term "cyberspace." Gibson also spawned a genre of fiction known as "cyberpunk" in his book...
700
1984Verilog is created (hardware description language that is used in the design of digital circuitry): was a vast improvement over methods being used by circuit designers at the time.
701
1984Domain Name System (DNS) introduced
702
1984Number of hosts breaks 1,000
703
1984JUNET (Japan Unix Network) established using UUCP
704
1984JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK using the Coloured Book protocols; previously SERCnet
705
1984Moderated newsgroups introduced on USENET (mod.*)
706
1984Neuromancer by William Gibson
707
1984Canada begins a one-year effort to network its universities. The NetNorth Network is connected to BITNET in Ithaca from Toronto
708
1984Kremvax message announcing USSR connectivity to USENET
709
1984Sea Shadow: goal to take lessons learned for aircraft to submarines, with the idea of making these vessels undetectable via sonar. ((Poject eventually scrapped))
710
1984X-29 (most aerodynamically unstable aircraft ever built): demonstrated forward-swept wing technology for supersonic fighter aircraft for the first time.
711
712
1985 DEVELOPMENTS
713
1985C++ Programming Language is published: emerges as the dominant object-oriented language in the computer industry when Bjarne Stroustrup publishes the book The C++ Programming Language.
714
1985PageMaker: 1/3 components to the desktop publishing revolution: Other 2 were invention of Postscript by Adobe and LaserWriter laser printer from Apple. All 3 necessary to create desktop publishing environment
715
1985Denning Sentry robot: Sentry robot as a security guard patrolling for up to 14 hours at 3 mph. It radioed an alert about anything unusual in a 150-foot radius. The product, and the company, did not succeed.
716
1985MIT Media Lab founded: initially focusing on the 'Digital Revolution' in areas as wide-ranging as electronic music, machine learning, holography, computer graphics, and art.
717
1985Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in the U.S: NES started to reverse the fortunes of the American game industry.
718
1985Omnibot 2000: remote-controlled programmable robot toy could move, talk and carry objects. The cassette player in its chest recorded actions to be taken and speech to be played.
719
1985PC's Limited is founded: The dorm-room headquartered company sold IBM PC-compatible computers built from stock components - By the early 1990s, Dell became one of the leading computer retailers...
720
1985Amiga 1000 is released: developed a very loyal following while add-on components allowed it to be upgraded easily.
721
1985The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (WELL) is founded: attracts an eclectic mix of intellectuals, computer geeks, hippies, Grateful Dead fans, writers, entrepreneurs, and journalists.
722
1985U.S. National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET): The NSFNET is a major factor in helping Internet protocols win out over rival protocols like OSI, SNA, and DECNET.
723
1985Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (WELL) started
724
1985Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at USC is given responsibility for DNS root management by DCA, and SRI for DNS NIC registrations
725
1985Symbolics.com is assigned on 15 March to become the first registered domain. Other firsts: cmu.edu, purdue.edu, rice.edu, berkeley.edu, ucla.edu, rutgers.edu, bbn.com (24 Apr); mit.edu (23 May)...etc...
726
1985100 years to the day of the last spike being driven on the cross-Canada railroad, the last Canadian university is connected to NetNorth in a one year effort to have coast-to-coast connectivity.
727
1985RFC 968: 'Twas the Night Before Start-up
728
1985Global Low Orbiting Message Relay (GLOMR) satellite (aka CHEAPSAT) program: demonstrate feasibility of two-way, digital data communication satellite capable of performing important military missions
729
730
1986 DEVELOPMENTS
731
1986Compaq introduces the Deskpro 386: first computer on the market to use Intel´s new 80386 chip, a 32-bit microprocessor with 275,000 transistors on each chip (introduction of a 32-bit architecture)...
732
1986IBM releases the first commercial Reduced instruction set computers (RISC)-based workstation (Grow from the 20 percent of a computer´s instruction set does 80 percent of the work concept)...
733
1986LMI Lambda LISP workstation: LISP, the preferred language for AI, ran slowly on expensive conventional computers. This specialized LISP computer, both faster and cheaper, was based on the CADR machine
734
1986Pixar is founded: Over the next decade, Pixar made highly successful (and Oscar-winning) animated films. It was bought by Disney in 2006.
735
1986SCSI-1 standard: Before SCSI, external devices such as hard drives had specific and non-standardized interfaces for connecting to computers: SCSI introduced a common, single adapter for all of these devices
736
1986Connection Machine is unveiled: Thinking Machines Corporation moves artificial intelligence a step forward when he develops the controversial concept of massive parallelism in the Connection Machine CM-1.
737
1986NSFNET created: NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing power for all (This allows an explosion of connections, especially from universities)
738
1986NSF-funded SDSCNET, JVNCNET, SURANET, and NYSERNET operational
739
1986Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB. First IETF meeting held in January at Linkabit in San Diego
740
1986First Freenet (Cleveland) comes on-line under the Society for Public Access Computing (SoPAC). Later Freenet program management assumed by the National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN) in 1989
741
1986Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.
742
1986Mail Exchanger (MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allow non-IP network hosts to have domain addresses.
743
1986The first in a series of congestion collapses begin occurring in October.
744
1986The great USENET name change; moderated newsgroups changed in 1987.
745
1986BARRNET (Bay Area Regional Research Network) established using high speed links. Operational in 1987.
746
1986New England gets cut off from the Net as AT&T suffers a fiber optics cable break between Newark/NJ and White Plains/NY. Yes, all seven New England ARPANET trunk lines were in the one severed cable.
747
1986.fi is registered by members of the Finnish Unix User Group (FUUG) in Tampere (12 Dec)
748
1986SEMATECH consortium received funding from the Federal Government to help revitalize the U.S. chipmaking industry (Later spawned International Semiconductor Manufacturing Initiative).
749
750
1987 DEVELOPMENTS
751
1987Acorn's ARM RISC microprocessor is first used in the company's Archimedes computer system...
752
1987Conner CP340A hard disk drive (HDD): established the 3½-inch HDD form factor as the standard of the time (ontrolled by a microprocessor, used embedded servo positioning, and had self-testing functionality).
753
1987GSM standard formally agreed for digital mobile telephony, including text messaging (SMS).
754
1987HyperCard revives hypertext: People now produce their own “stacks” of linked cards (But, HyperCard is standalone; you can only click through to other cards on the same computer).
755
1987IBM introduces its Personal System/2 (PS/2) machines (first IBM system to include Intel´s 80386 chip)...
756
1987Mitsubishi Movemaster RM-501 Gripper is introduced: small, commercially available industrial robot: assembling products or handling chemicals: six degrees of movement freedom...
757
1987Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language) is written by Larry Wall: It is very useful in making other programs work together and has been called “the duct tape of the Internet.”
758
1987William Atkinson designs HyperCard: software tool that simplifies development of in-house applications - Hypercard influenced the creation on the Internet protocol HTTP and JavaScript...
759
1987NSF signs a cooperative agreement to manage the NSFNET backbone with Merit Network, Inc. (IBM and MCI involvement was through an agreement with Merit). Merit, IBM, and MCI later founded ANS.
760
1987UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access. Originally an experiment by Rick Adams and Mike O'Dell
761
1987First TCP/IP Interoperability Conference (March), name changed in 1988 to INTEROP
762
1987Email link established between Germany and China using CSNET protocols, with the first message from China sent on 20 September.
763
1987The plan for national US research and education network is proposed by Gordon Bell et al in a report to the Office of Science and Technology: Would take 4 years until establishment of this network by Congress
764
19871000th RFC: "Request For Comments reference guide"
765
1987Number of hosts breaks 10,000
766
1987Number of BITNET hosts breaks 1,000
767
1987Microwave and Millimeter Wave Integrated Circuit (MIMIC): develop microwave/millimeter-wave subsystems for use in military weapon system ‘front ends’ that are affordable, available, and broadly applicable...
768
1987Tank Breaker/Javelin: Army later renamed the weapon Javelin, which entered full-scale production in 1997. It was the world’s first medium-range, one-man-portable, fire-and-forget anti-tank weapon system.
769
770
1988 DEVELOPMENTS
771
1988Tin Toy wins Oscar: first computer-animated film to win an Academy Award, taking the Oscar for Best Animated Short Film...
772
1988Steve Jobs' NeXT Cube: includes magneto-optical disk drive, digital signal processor and the NeXTSTEP programming environment: groundbreaking ability to foster rapid development of software applications.
773
1988Creative Arts releases the first SoundBlaster: add-on sound cards for the IBM PC, with the SoundBlaster family of sound cards becoming the industry standard (best-selling expansion card)...
774
1988Laser 128 is released: reversed engineered the Apple II system and sold it for US $479, a much lower price than the comparable Apple II ((Won a future lawsuit by apple))...
775
1988Mathematica: symbolic mathematical programming language used in mathematical, scientific, academic, and engineering fields: complete computing ecosystem allowed symbolic entry of mathematical functions
776
1988The Morris Worm: Robert T. Morris sends a nondestructive worm through the Internet causing major problems for days for about 6,000 of the 60,000 hosts linked to the network (First to effect real world)...
777
19882 November - Internet worm burrows through the Net, affecting ~6,000 of the 60,000 hosts on the Internet
778
1988CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) formed by DARPA in response to the needs exhibited during the Morris worm incident. The worm is the only advisory issued this year.
779
1988DoD chooses to adopt OSI and sees use of TCP/IP as an interim. US Government OSI Profile (GOSIP) defines the set of protocols to be supported by Government purchased products
780
1988Los Nettos network created with no federal funding, instead supported by regional members (founding: Caltech, TIS, UCLA, USC, ISI).
781
1988NSFNET backbone upgraded to T1 (1.544Mbps)
782
1988CERFnet (California Education and Research Federation network) founded by Susan Estrada.
783
1988Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) established in December with Jon Postel as its Director. Postel was also the RFC Editor and US Domain registrar for many years.
784
1988Internet Relay Chat (IRC) developed by Jarkko Oikarinen
785
1988First Canadian regionals join NSFNET: ONet via Cornell, RISQ via Princeton, BCnet via Univ of Washington
786
1988FidoNet gets connected to the Net, enabling the exchange of email and news
787
1988The first multicast tunnel is established between Stanford and BBN in the Summer of 1988.
788
1988Countries connecting to NSFNET: Canada (CA), Denmark (DK), France (FR), Iceland (IS), Norway (NO), Sweden (SE)
789
1988UAVs (Joint Program "Teal Rain"): development of the first endurance unmanned aerial vehicle which flew for more than 38 straight hours and reached an altitude of 25,000 feet...
790
1988Unmanned Undersea Vehicle: work in the UUV led to many follow-on projects, along with a range of technology developments.
791
792
1989 DEVELOPMENTS
793
1989 Internet has quietly grown to 100,000 host machines, each with multiple users: 1992 the Internet will have emerged as the new global standard, linking a million computers (Why? MONEY BABY, MONEY!!)
794
1989Computer defeats master chess player: The program Deep Thought defeats Levy who had beaten all other previous computer counterparts since 1968.
795
1989Intel released the 80486 microprocessor and the i860 RISC/coprocessor chip, each of which contained more than 1 million transistors (doubled the performance of the 386 without increasing the clock rate.)
796
1989James Cameron's The Abyss is released: one of the most significant science fiction films of the 1980s (introduced a new tool to the effects supervisor's tool chest, Photoshop.)
797
1989Macintosh Portable is introduced: heavy, weighing sixteen pounds, and expensive (US$6,500) - The line was discontinued less than two years later.
798
1989More than six Online Systems for the Internet -- many users (Mostly geeks) so, the internet lacks online systems to help ordinary people navigate it. (This will start to be filled)...
799
1989Nintendo releases the Game Boy handheld game console: System used removable game cartridges to play on its 2.9-inch black and white screen: One of the all-time top-selling game systems.
800
1989Number of hosts breaks 100,000
801
1989RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeens) formed (by European service providers) to ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to allow the operation of the pan-European IP Network
802
1989First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the Internet: MCI Mail through the Corporation for the National Research Initiative (CNRI), and CompuServe through Ohio State Univ
803
1989Corporation for Research and Education Networking (CREN) is formed by merging CSNET into BITNET (August)
804
1989AARNET - Australian Academic Research Network - set up by AVCC and CSIRO; introduced into service the following year
805
1989First link between Australia and NSFNET via Hawaii on 23 June. Australia had been limited to USENET access since the early 1980s
806
1989Cuckoo's Egg by Clifford Stoll tells the real-life tale of a German cracker group who infiltrated numerous US facilities
807
1989UCLA sponsors the Act One symposium to celebrate ARPANET's 20th anniversary and its decommissioning (August)
808
1989RFC 1121: Act One - The Poems
809
1989RFC 1097: TELNET SUBLIMINAL-MESSAGE Option
810
1989Countries connecting to NSFNET: Australia (AU), Germany (DE), Israel (IL), Italy (IT), Japan (JP), Mexico (MX), Netherlands (NL), New Zealand (NZ), Puerto Rico (PR), United Kingdom (UK)
811
1989High Definition Systems: program supported work on display-related technologies, including materials and manufacturing techniques (digital mirror projection technology)...
812
1989RF Wafer: tight integration of chips to the scale of the entire semiconductor wafer from which, normally, hundreds of chips would be diced and then packaged into separate components of electronic systems.
813
1989Taurus Launch Vehicle: Small Standard Launch Vehicle (SSLV): led to the Taurus: launch vehicle to supply the DoD with quick-response, low-cost launch of tactical satellites from ground facilities.
814
1989Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL): could provide short-distance, high-speed digital interconnections that would be important to meet goals of the HPCC initiative
815
816
1990 DEVELOPMENTS
817
1990World Wide Web invented by Tim Berners-Lee
818
1990IBM 9345 hard disk drive: first hard disk drive to use magneto-resistive heads. (Magneto-resistive heads gave the 9345 an advantage over its competitors, as the bits could be stored more densely).
819
1990Intel's Touchstone Delta supercomputer system comes online, reaching 32 gigaflops (32 billion floating point operations per second): model for other multi-processor systems that would be among the fastest...
820
1990Magneto-Optical Discs (combination a magnetic and optical storage): They could be rewritten up to one million times.
821
1990Microsoft ships Windows 3.0: first successful version of Windows finally offered good enough performance to satisfy PC users: allowed multiple programs to run simultaneously on its Intel 80386 microprocessor.
822
1990Photoshop is released: image editing program and the most popular software program published by Adobe Systems.
823
1990The "WorldWideWeb" is born: features a server, HTML, URLs, and the first browser that also functions as an editor - like a word processor connected to the Internet...
824
1990Video Toaster is introduced by NewTek (video editing and production system): popular with public access stations and was even good enough to be used for broadcast television shows like Home Improvement.
825
1990William Gibson and Bruce Sterling publish The Difference Engine: what many consider to be the first blockbuster "Steampunk" novel...
826
1990ARPANET ceases to exist
827
1990Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is founded by Mitch Kapor
828
1990Archie released by Peter Deutsch, Alan Emtage, and Bill Heelan at McGill
829
1990Hytelnet released by Peter Scott (Univ of Saskatchewan)
830
1990The World comes on-line (world.std.com), becoming the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access
831
1990ISO Development Environment (ISODE) developed to provide an approach for OSI migration for the DoD. ISODE software allows OSI application to operate over TCP/IP
832
1990CA*net formed by 10 regional networks as national Canadian backbone with direct connection to NSFNET
833
1990The first remotely operated machine to be hooked up to the Internet, the Internet Toaster by John Romkey, (controlled via SNMP) makes its debut at Interop
834
1990Czechoslovakia (.cs) connects to EARN/BitNet (11 Oct); .cs deleted in 1993
835
1990Countries connecting to NSFNET: Argentina (AR), Austria (AT), Belgium (BE), Brazil (BR), Chile (CL), Greece (GR), India (IN), Ireland (IE), Korea (KR), Spain (ES), Switzerland (CH)
836
1990RFC 1178: Choosing a Name for Your Computer
837
1990RFC 1149: A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers. Implementation is completed 11 years later by the Bergen Linux Users Group
838
839
1991 DEVELOPMENTS
840
1991Babbage's Difference Engine #2 completed: a team at the Science Museum in London sets out to prove that the design would have worked as planned...
841
1991Linus Torvalds releases the Linux kernel: Linux became free software or, as its developers preferred to say after 1998, “open source.” Linux also incorporated some elements of the GNU operating system
842
1991Michael Jackson's Black or White video premieres: debuted in 20+ countries simultaneously before 500,000,000 viewers, making it one of the most viewed movies with computer graphics up to that point in time.
843
1991NSF lifts restrictions on commercial use of the Internet: removes the last major remaining advantage for competing networking and internetworking standards, from OSI to SNA to CompuServe’s network.
844
1991Pretty Good Privacy (PGP): public-key encryption program, used for securing texts, emails and files. US govt, concerned about the strength of PGP, which rivaled some of the best secret codes in use at the time
845
1991PowerBook series of laptops is introduced: featured a built-in trackball, internal floppy drive, and palm rests, which would eventually become typical of 1990s laptop design (Later discontinued)...
846
1991Web browsers: a Cry for Help: Eight volunteers respond, resulting in UNIX, Mac, and PC browsers. Viola and Midas are initially the most popular, eclipsed later by Mosaic...
847
1991First connection takes place between Brazil, by Fapesp, and the Internet at 9600 baud.
848
1991Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association, Inc. formed by General Atomics (CERFnet), (PSInet), and (AlterNet), as NSF lifts restrictions on the commercial use of the Net (March)
849
1991Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS), invented by Brewster Kahle, released by Thinking Machines Corporation
850
1991Gopher released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the Univ of Minnesota
851
1991World-Wide Web (WWW) released by CERN; Tim Berners-Lee developer (:pb1:). First Web server is nxoc01.cern.ch, launched in Nov 1990 and later renamed info.cern.ch.
852
1991PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) released by Philip Zimmerman
853
1991US High Performance Computing Act (Gore 1) establishes the National Research and Education Network (NREN)
854
1991NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps)
855
1991NSFNET traffic passes 1 trillion bytes/month and 10 billion packets/month
856
1991Defense Data Network NIC contract awarded by DISA to Government Systems Inc. who takes over from SRI on 1 Oct
857
1991Start of JANET IP Service (JIPS) which signaled the changeover from Coloured Book software to TCP/IP within the UK academic network. IP was initially 'tunneled' within X.25.
858
1991RFC 1216: Gigabit Network Economics and Paradigm Shifts
859
1991RFC 1217: Memo from the Consortium for Slow Commotion Research (CSCR)
860
1991Countries connecting to NSFNET: Croatia (HR), Hong Kong (HK), Hungary (HU), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Singapore (SG), South Africa (ZA), Taiwan (TW), Tunisia (TN)
861
1991Cermet Body Armor: Lanxide material also employed as high-power-density heat sinks for the F/A-18 and F-16 radars, turbine tip shrouds, commercial satellite heat sinks, etc...
862
1991Radar Mapping: airborne, all-weather, radar-based mapping capability generated maps of the terrain that could do so day or night, and in adverse weather conditions, such as thick cloud cover or rain.
863
1991Advanced Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (ASTOVL): The program evolved toward an aircraft that could build on much of the design base for the Air Force F-16...
864
1991Uncooled IR Detection (LOCUSP): Uncooled Focal Plane Arrays (UCFPA) started under the Balanced Technology Initiative to create practical applications of DARPA’s research into uncooled sensor arrays.
865
866
1992 DEVELOPMENTS
867
1992Terminator 2: Judgment Day opens: features groundbreaking special effects done by Industrial Light & Magic. Made for a record $100 million, it was the most expensive movie ever made at the time.
868
1992DEC announces Alpha chip architecture: Designed to replace the 32-bit VAX architecture, the Alpha is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microprocessor (used in DEC's workstations and servers).
869
1992Intel Paragon is operational: parallel supercomputer that uses 2,048 (later increased to more than four thousand) Intel i860 processors - fastest supercomputer in the world in 1992...
870
1992JPEG standard finalized: Jpeg compression allows for a trade-off between photo quality and file size. Jpeg is one of the most popular image formats, and is the format most widely used by digital cameras.
871
1992Japan's Fifth Generation Computer Systems project abandoned: project was intended to build a platform from which artificial intelligence systems could grow and ultimately build machines that had reasoning...
872
1992SSD module: used non-volatile memory chips to replace the spinning disks of a hard disk drive: handheld devices were becoming lighter and smaller, and that flash memory, as was used in the SSD was good
873
1992Storage Tek 4400 ACS tape library: Storage Tek was one of the first major players in the automated tape library sector, and competed with IBM for market share.
874
1992Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered under CNRI (January); incorporation took place in December
875
1992IAB reconstituted as the Internet Architecture Board and becomes part of the Internet Society
876
1992Number of hosts breaks 1,000,000
877
1992First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November)
878
1992RIPE Network Coordination Center (NCC) created in April to provide address registration and coordination services to the European Internet community
879
1992Veronica, a gopherspace search tool, is released by Univ of Nevada
880
1992World Bank comes on-line
881
1992The term "surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly (:jap:); Brendan Kehoe uses the term "net-surfing" as early as 6 June 1991 in a USENET post
882
1992Zen and the Art of the Internet is published by Brendan Kehoe
883
1992Internet Hunt started by Rick Gates
884
1992RFC 1300: Remembrances of Things Past
885
1992RFC 1313: Today's Programming for KRFC AM 1313 - Internet Talk Radio
886
1992Countries connecting to NSFNET: Antarctica (AQ), Cameroon (CM), Cyprus (CY), Ecuador (EC), Estonia (EE), Kuwait (KW), Latvia (LV), Luxembourg (LU), Malaysia (MY), Slovenia (SI), Thailand (TH), Venezuela
887
1992Brilliant Anti-Tank Munition (BAT): terminally guided anti-armor munition originally intended to be carried aboard the TriService Standoff Attack Missile.
888
1992Non-Penetrating Periscope: Using fiber optic data transmission, new telescoping mast eliminated the need for the deep, hull-penetrating well required to accommodate the optics tube on other submarines.
889
890
1993 DEVELOPMENTS
891
1993An immersive first-person shooter-style game, Doom becomes popular on many different platforms.
892
1993Jurassic Park released: To create realistic-looking dinosaurs, Spielberg's team combined animatronics, puppetry, and cutting-edge computer animation.
893
1993Wired Magazine debuts: Considered by some to be "the Rolling Stone of Technology," Wired magazine is founded by Jane Metcalfe and Louis Rossette.
894
1993Apple ships the first Newton: Dubbed a “Personal Data Assistant”: featured many of the features that would define handheld computers in the following decades.
895
1993Fantasy game Myst is released: often credited with greatly increasing the sales of CD-ROM drives for computers. The game became the best-selling personal computer game of all-time
896
1993FreeBSD is launched (complete Unix-like operating system): most widely used open-source BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) variant.
897
1993Gopher, which organizes content in folders rather than clickable links, grows faster than the Web in the early ‘90s and is its most direct Internet competitor.
898
1993Intel's Pentium microprocessor is released: introduced several advances that made programs run faster such as the ability to execute several instructions at the same time and support for graphics and music.
899
1993Microsoft Windows NT released: first truly 32-bit version of Windows from Microsoft.
900
1993Mosaic popularizes the Web: first browser supported by a major institution, starts the Web on the road from research project to blockbuster success: reliable and could be installed by amateurs.
901
1993Online ads mark the slow start of the commercial Web: first businesses to earn substantial profits on the Web are pornography and gambling sites.
902
1993InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (AT&T) -- registration services (Network Solutions Inc.) -- information services (General Atomics/CERFnet)
903
1993US White House email comes on-line at whitehouse.gov; web site launches in 1994 ((President Bill Clinton: president@whitehouse.gov // Vice-President Al Gore: vice-president@whitehouse.gov))
904
1993Worms of a new kind find their way around the Net - WWW Worms (W4), joined by Spiders, Wanderers, Crawlers, and Snakes ...
905
1993Internet Talk Radio begins broadcasting (:sk2:)
906
1993United Nations (UN) comes on-line (:vgc:)
907
1993US National Information Infrastructure Act
908
1993Businesses and media begin taking notice of the Internet
909
1993.sk (Slovakia) and .cz (Czech Republic) created after split of Czechoslovakia; .cs decomissioned
910
1993InterCon International KK (IIKK) provides Japan's first commercial Internet connection in September. TWICS, though an IIKK leased line, begins offering dial-up accounts the following month
911
1993Mosaic takes the Internet by storm (22 Apr); WWW proliferates at a 341,634% annual growth rate of service traffic. Gopher's growth is 997%.
912
1993RFC 1437: The Extension of MIME Content-Types to a New Medium
913
1993RFC 1438: IETF Statements of Boredom (SOBs)
914
1993Countries connecting to NSFNET: Bulgaria (BG), Costa Rica (CR), Egypt (EG), Fiji (FJ), Ghana (GH), Guam (GU), Indonesia (ID), Kazakhstan (KZ), (KE), (LI), (PE), (RO), (RU), (TR), (UA), (AE), (VI)
915
1993DARPA becomes ARPA: "expand the agency’s mission to pursue imaginative and innovative research and development projects w/ significant potential for both military and commercial (dual-use) applications.”
916
1993Spintronics: Spintronics, catalyzed the development of non-volatile magnetic memory (MRAM) devices and led to SPiNS, a program that sought to develop spin-based integrated circuits (ICs).
917
918
1994 DEVELOPMENTS
919
1994CompactFlash: quickly adopted and becomes the preferred memory storage option in many consumer as well as professional electronic devices.
920
1994Entertainment Software Rating Board: largest game providers created the ESRB to give ratings to video games.
921
1994Iomega Zip Disk: Like hard disks but unlike other floppies, ZIP drives used a non-contact read/write head that “flew” above the surface.
922
1994RISC PC is released (uses the ARMv3 RISC microprocessor): The RISC PC was used widely in UK broadcast television and in music production.
923
1994Web momentum moves to US: Silicon Valley begins to invest in the commercial possibilities of the Web – including Java and the formation of Netscape (Momentum shifts permanantly west).
924
1994Disk drive with transfer rate of more than 10 megabytes a second introduced by Seagate
925
1994ARPANET/Internet celebrates 25th anniversary
926
1994Communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet (Lexington and Cambridge, Mass., USA)
927
1994US Senate and House provide information servers
928
1994Shopping malls arrive on the Internet
929
1994First cyberstation, RT-FM, broadcasts from Interop in Las Vegas
930
1994The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests that GOSIP should incorporate TCP/IP and drop the "OSI-only" requirement
931
1994Arizona law firm of Canter & Siegel "spams" the Internet with email advertising green card lottery services; Net citizens flame back
932
1994NSFNET traffic passes 10 trillion bytes/month
933
1994Yes, it's true - you can now order pizza from the Hut online
934
1994WWW edges out telnet to become 2nd most popular service on the Net (behind ftp-data) based on % of packets and bytes traffic distribution on NSFNET
935
1994Japanese Prime Minister on-line (http://www.kantei.go.jp/)
936
1994UK's HM Treasury on-line (http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/)
937
1994New Zealand's Info Tech Prime Minister on-line (http://www.govt.nz/)
938
1994First Virtual, the first cyberbank, open up for business
939
1994Radio stations start rockin' (rebroadcasting) round the clock on the Net: WXYC at Univ of NC, KJHK at Univ of KS-Lawrence, KUGS at Western WA Univ
940
1994IPng recommended by IETF at its Toronto meeting (July) and approved by IESG in November. Later documented as RFC 1752
941
1994The first banner ads appear on hotwired.com in October. They were for Zima (a beverage) and AT&T
942
1994Trans-European Research and Education Network Association (TERENA) is formed by the merger of RARE and EARN, with representatives from 38 countries as well as CERN and ECMWF...
943
1994After noticing that many network software vendors used domain.com in their documentation examples, Bill Woodcock and Jon Postel register the domain. evident that many users were using the example domain...
944
1994The first web-based machine translation system is developed by this Timeline's author, supporting 9 languages, and made available the following year to hundreds of thousands of users on OSIS and Intelink...
945
1994RFC 1605: SONET to Sonnet Translation
946
1994RFC 1606: A Historical Perspective On The Usage Of IP Version 9
947
1994RFC 1607: A VIEW FROM THE 21ST CENTURY
948
1994Countries connecting to NSFNET: (DZ), (AM), (BM), (BF), (CN), (CO), (JM), (JO), (LB), (LT), (MO), (MA), (NC), (NI), (NE), (PA), (PH), (SN), (LK), (SZ), (UY), (UZ)
949
1994Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, uk, gov, de, ca, mil, au, org, net
950
1994DARPASAT: demonstrated the possibility of placing in orbit a lightweight, low-cost payload for enhancing operational defense and warfighting capabilities.
951
1994Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMs): adapted standard semiconductor-fabrication methods to fabricate miniature mechanical structures such as flexible membranes, cantilevers, etc...
952
1994Sensor-Fuzed Weapon: smart projectile is a sensor-fuzed warhead comprised of an infrared sensor, a safe and arming device, a thermal battery, and a copper liner.
953
954
1995 DEVELOPMENTS
955
1995Microsoft Windows 95 released
956
1995BeBox released: Using dual PowerPC 603 CPUs, and featuring a large variety of peripheral ports, the first devices were used for software development.
957
1995Browser War II: Netscape vs. Microsoft: As a last strategy the code for Netscape's Navigator browser gets converted to open source: becomes the basis of the Mozilla Foundation and its Firefox browser today.
958
1995Computer-animated Homer Simpson appears on The Simpsons: Homer Simpson appeared in 3D animated form during a segment called Homer3.
959
1995Digital Video Disc (DVD) format is introduced, and its storage capacity is a huge increase over the common compact disc (CD).
960
1995IBM releases the ThinkPad 701C: known as the Track Write, the automatically expanding full-sized keyboard used by the ThinkPad 701 is designed by inventor John Karidis.
961
1995Java 1.0 is introduced: The Java platform’s “Write Once, Run Anywhere” functionality let a program run on any system, offering users independence from traditional large software vendors like Microsoft or Apple
962
1995JavaScript is developed: object-based scripting language: used extensively across the Internet on both client and server sides.
963
1995Online Services make way for the Web: ((MSN becomes a Web portal)).
964
1995Sony releases the PlayStation in North America: setting the stage for the Sony to become a dominant player in the home gaming market.
965
1995The MQ-1 Predator drone called to duty: The unmanned aerial vehicles were equipped with cameras for reconnaissance and could be upgraded to carry two missiles.
966
1995NSFNET reverts back to a research network. Main US backbone traffic now routed through interconnected network providers
967
1995The new NSFNET is born as NSF establishes the very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) linking super-computing centers: NCAR, NCSA, SDSC, CTC, PSC
968
1995Neda Rayaneh Institute (NRI), Iran's first commercial provider, comes online, connecting via satellite to Cadvision, a Canadian provider
969
1995Hong Kong police disconnect all but one of the colony's Internet providers for failure to obtain a license; thousands of users are left without service
970
1995Sun launches JAVA on May 23
971
1995RealAudio, an audio streaming technology, lets the Net hear in near real-time
972
1995Radio HK, the first commercial 24 hr., Internet-only radio station starts broadcasting
973
1995WWW surpasses ftp-data in March as the service with greatest traffic on NSFNet based on packet count, and in April based on byte count
974
1995Traditional online dial-up systems (CompuServe, America Online, Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access
975
1995Chris Lamprecht (aka "Minor Threat") becomes the first person banned from accessing the Internet by a US District Court judge in Texas
976
1995Thousands in Minneapolis-St. Paul (USA) lose Net access after transients start a bonfire under a bridge at the Univ of MN causing fiber-optic cables to melt (30 July)
977
1995A number of Net related companies go public, with Netscape leading the pack with the 3rd largest ever NASDAQ IPO share value (9 August)
978
1995Registration of domain names is no longer free. Beginning 14 September, a $50 annual fee has been imposed, which up until now was subsidized by NSF. NSF continues to pay for .edu registration & .gov...
979
1995The Vatican comes on-line (http://www.vatican.va/)
980
1995The Canadian Government comes on-line (http://canada.gc.ca/)
981
1995First official Internet wiretap successful in helping the Secret Service and (DEA) apprehend three individuals who were illegally manufacturing and selling cell phone cloning equipment and electronic devices
982
1995Operation Home Front connects, for the first time, soldiers in the field with their families back home via the Internet.
983
1995Richard White becomes the first person to be declared a munition, under the USA's arms export control laws, because of an RSA file security encryption program tattooed on his arm
984
1995RFC 1882: The 12-Days of Technology Before Christmas
985
1995Country domains registered: (ET), (CI), (CK) (KY), (AI), (GI), (VA), (KI), (KG), (MG), (MU), (FM), (MC), (MN), (NP), (NG), (WS), (SM), (TZ), (TO), (UG), (VU)
986
1995Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, net, gov, mil, org, de, uk, ca, au
987
1995Technologies of the Year: WWW, Search engines
988
1995Emerging Technologies: Mobile code (JAVA, JAVAscript), Virtual environments (VRML), Collaborative tools
989
1995Hacks of the Year: The Spot (Jun 12), Hackers Movie Page (12 Aug)
990
1995DARPA launched the Microwave and Analog Front End Technology (MAFET) program as a follow-on to the Millimeter Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MIMIC) program...
991
1995X-31 aircraft: outcome was the ability, with the help of design elements such as thrust vectoring, to execute controlled flight at extreme angles of attack at which conventional aircraft would stall or lose control.
992
993
1996 DEVELOPMENTS
994
1996Java Development Kit 1.0 relesed and marketed as simple, object-oriented programming that could be executed with high performance.
995
19963dfx begins selling Voodoo Graphics chips: (eventually sold all its intellectual property to Nvidia.)
996
1996Diary of a Camper machinima created: (Diary of a Camper told a short story with a comedic punch line.)
997
1996Palm Pilot: Could be connected to a PC or Mac using a serial port to synchronize – “sync” – both computer and Palm. The company called it a ‘connected organizer’ rather than a PDA to emphasize this ability.
998
1996Sony Vaio series is begun: featured an additional 3D interface on top of the Windows 95 operating system as a way of attracting new users.
999
1996Web users reach 36 million, now biggest user community (By decade’s end, the Web will hit 360 million. By 2010, two billion.)
1000
1996Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
1001
1996Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, PLO Leader Yasser Arafat, and Phillipine President Fidel Ramos meet for ten minutes in an online interactive chat session on 17 January.
1002
1996The controversial US Communications Decency Act (CDA) becomes law in the US in order to prohibit distribution of indecent materials over the Net.
1003
1996BackRub, Google's precursor, comes online
1004
19969,272 organizations find themselves unlisted after the InterNIC drops their name service as a result of not having paid their domain name fee
1005
1996Various ISPs suffer extended service outages, bringing into question whether they will be able to handle the growing number of users. AOL (19 hours), Netcom (13 hours), AT&T WorldNet (28 hours - email only)
1006
1996Domain name tv.com sold to CNET for US$15,000
1007
1996New York's Public Access Networks Corp (PANIX) is shut down after repeated SYN attacks by a cracker using methods outlined in a hacker magazine (2600)
1008
1996MCI upgrades Internet backbone adding ~13,000 ports, bringing the effective speed from 155Mbps to 622Mbps.
1009
1996Internet Ad Hoc Committee announces plans to add 7 new Top Level Domains (gTLD): .firm, .store, .web, .arts, .rec, .info, .nom. The IAHC plan also calls for a competing group of domain registrars worldwide.
1010
1996A malicious cancelbot is released on USENET wiping out more than 25,000 messages
1011
1996The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development: new releases made quarterly with help of Interne beta testers
1012
1996Internet2 project is kicked off by representatives from 34 universities on 1 Oct (:msb:)
1013
1996RFC 1925: The Twelve Networking Truths
1014
1996Restrictions on Internet use around the world: China, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, New Zealand
1015
1996Country domains registered: (QA), (CF), (OM), (NF), (TV), (PF), (SY), (AW), (KH), (GF), (ER), (CV), (BI), (BJ), (BA), (AD), (GP), (GG), (IM), (JE), (LA), (MV), (MH), (MR), (MP), (RW), (TG), (YE), (ZR)
1016
1996Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, net, uk, de, jp, us, mil, ca, au
1017
1996Hacks of the Year: US Dept of Justice (17 Aug), CIA (19 Sep), Air Force (29 Dec), UK Labour Party (6 Dec), NASA DDCSOL - USAFE - US Air Force (30 Dec)
1018
1996Technologies of the Year: Search engines, JAVA, Internet Phone
1019
1996Emerging Technologies: Virtual environments (VRML), Collaborative tools, Internet appliance (Network Computer)
1020
1996ARPA renamed DARPA, again: national leadership to re-emphasize the Agency’s focus on defense matters over commercial ones, ARPA regains its D for Defense to again become DARPA.
1021
1996Geographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (GeoSAR) program was an airborne radar-based project for simultaneously mapping foliage canopies along with the terrain underneath the canopies.
1022
1996Schottky IR Imager: DARPA funded efforts that reduced to practice a totally new concept for obtaining infrared (IR) images of targets.
1023
1996SOLDIER 911 is a personal emergency radio that monitors the position of the wearer, and if the soldier approaches a restricted area, the radio alerts the soldier and his or her chain of command.
1024
1025
1997 DEVELOPMENTS
1026
1997Grand Theft Auto is released: Free-form structure allowed players to do anything they wanted, but also rewarding players for creating havoc such as running down pedestrians and completing missions.
1027
1997The Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) needed a supercomputer to help with the maintenance of the US nuclear arsenal following the ban on underground nuclear testing ((Operational))
1028
1997Compact Disc-ReWritable (CD-RW): CD-RWs that were created on CD-RW drives were often unable to be read on CD-ROM drives. DVDs overtook much of the market share from CD-RWs.
1029
1997Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov: With the ability to evaluate 200 million positions per second, IBM’s Deep Blue chess computer defeats the current world chess champion, Garry Kasparov on May 11.
1030
1997Microsoft introduces Visual Studio: The idea of visual programming is to allow programmers to develop software using built-in visual elements (like in a block diagram) instead of text.
1031
19972000th RFC: "Internet Official Protocol Standards"
1032
199771,618 mailing lists registered at Liszt, a mailing list directory
1033
1997The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is established to handle administration and registration of IP numbers to the geographical areas currently handled by Network Solutions (InterNIC)
1034
1997CA*net II launched in June to provide Canada's next generation Internet using ATM/SONET
1035
1997In protest of the DNS monopoly, AlterNIC's owner, Eugene Kashpureff, hacks DNS so users going to www.internic.net end up at www.alternic.net
1036
1997Domain name business.com sold for US$150,000
1037
1997Early in the morning of 17 July, human error at Network Solutions causes the DNS table for .com and .net domains to become corrupted, making millions of systems unreachable.
1038
1997Longest hostname registered with InterNIC: CHALLENGER.MED.SYNAPSE.UAH.UALBERTA.CA
1039
1997101,803 Name Servers in whois database
1040
1997RFC 2100: The Naming of Hosts
1041
1997(FK), (TP), (CG), (CX), (GM), (GW), (HT), (IQ), (LY), (MW), (MQ), (MS), (MM), (RE), (SC), (SL), (SO), (SD), (TJ), (TM), (TC), (VG), (HM), (TF), (IO), (SJ), (PM), (SH), (GS), (ST), (AC), (UM), (YT), (WF), (TK)...etc
1042
1997Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, net, jp, uk, de, us, au, ca, mil
1043
1997Hacks of the Year: Indonesian Govt (19 Jan, 10 Feb, 24 Apr, 30 Jun, 22 Nov), NASA (5 Mar), UK Conservative Party (27 Apr), Spice Girls (14 Nov)
1044
1997Technologies of the Year: Push, Multicasting
1045
1997Emerging Technologies: Push
1046
1997Head-Mounted Displays: DARPA initiated programs to develop head-mounted displays to enable soldiers to view information with unprecedented ease and efficiency.
1047
1048
1049
1050
1998 DEVELOPMENTS
1051
1998Furby ignites buying frenzy: Each Furby initially spoke only “Furbish” but could gradually learn English commands. It communicated with other nearby Furbies using an infrared port between its eyes.
1052
1998Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) releases Maya: a next generation 3D animation tool, basing it on code from previous systems created by Wavefront and Alias.
1053
1998US Congress passes the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (or DMCA), which stiffened the punishment for violating copyright on the Internet.
1054
1998The iMac, a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers, is launched: First new product under leadership of Steve Jobs, considered most significant step in Apple's return from near-bankruptcy.
1055
1998Hobbes' Internet Timeline is released as RFC 2235 & FYI 32
1056
1998US Depart of Commerce (DoC) releases the Green Paper outlining its plan to privatize DNS on 30 January. This is followed up by a White Paper on June 5
1057
1998La Fête de l'Internet, a country-wide Internet fest, is held in France 20-21 March
1058
1998Web size estimates range between 275 (Digital) and 320 (NEC) million pages for 1Q
1059
1998Companies flock to the Turkmenistan NIC in order to register their name under the .tm domain, the English abbreviation for trademark
1060
1998Internet users get to be judges in a performance by 12 world champion ice skaters on 27 March, marking the first time a television sport show's outcome is determined by its viewers.
1061
1998Network Solutions registers its 2 millionth domain on 4 May
1062
1998Electronic postal stamps become a reality, with the US Postal Service allowing stamps to be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web.
1063
1998Canada kicks off CA*net 3, the first national optical internet
1064
1998CDA II and a ban on Net taxes are signed into US law (21 October)
1065
1998ABCNews.com accidentally posts test US election returns one day early (2 November)
1066
1998Indian ISP market is deregulated in November causing a rush for ISP operation licenses
1067
1998US DoC enters into an agreement with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers (ICANN) to establish a process for transitioning DNS from US Government management to industry (25 November)
1068
1998San Francisco sites without off-city mirrors go offline as the city blacks out on 8 December
1069
1998Chinese government puts Lin Hai on trial for "inciting the overthrow of state power" for providing 30,000 email addresses to a US Internet magazine (December) ((He is later sentenced to two years in jail))
1070
1998French Internet users give up their access on 13 December to boycott France Telecom's local phone charges (which are in addition to the ISP charge)
1071
1998US$1M+ Domain Sales: Altavista.com (3.3M) to Compaq
1072
1998Open source software comes of age
1073
1998RFC 2321: RITA -- The Reliable Internetwork Troubleshooting Agent
1074
1998RFC 2322: Management of IP numbers by peg-dhcp
1075
1998RFC 2323: IETF Identification and Security Guidelines
1076
1998RFC 2324: Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP/1.0)
1077
1998Country domains registered: Nauru (NR), Comoros (KM)
1078
1998Bandwidth Generators: Winter Olympics (Feb), World Cup (Jun-Jul), Starr Report (11 Sep), Glenn space launch
1079
1998Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, net, edu, mil, jp, us, uk ,de, ca, au
1080
1998Hacks of the Year: US Dept of Commerce (20 Feb), New York Times (13 Sep), China Society for Human Rights Studies (26 Oct), UNICEF (7 Jan)
1081
1998Technologies of the Year: E-Commerce, E-Auctions, Portals
1082
1998Emerging Technologies: E-Trade, XML, Intrusion Detection
1083
1084
1999 DEVELOPMENTS
1085
1999inspired by Dungeons & Dragons and Multi-User Domains (MUDs), John Smedley develops EverQuest, a fantasy-themed Massively Multi-player Online Role-Playing Game, or MMORPG.
1086
1999The Matrix released: featured computer-generated effects, and popularized 'bullet-time' - a multi-camera technique where the camera appears to move at normal speed while the action filmed appears slowed.
1087
1999IBM Microdrive: At the time of their introduction, they were the smallest hard drives in the world (Many handheld, mobile devices contained embedded Microdrives for data storage).
1088
1999Nvidia releases the GeForce 256: A new approach, based on processor specially designed to manipulate graphics, was initiated and the resulting product was known as a “Graphics Processing Unit,” or “GPU”
1089
1999The AIBO robotic pet dog: $2,000 “Artificial Intelligence RoBOt” was a robotic pet dog designed to “learn” by interacting with its environment, its owners and other AIBOs.
1090
1999The Mobile Web arrives in Japan: Japanese mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo creates the i-mode networking standard for mobile data in 1999.
1091
1999WiFi: IEEE 802.11b short-range radio networking standard is rebranded “Wi-Fi” by the Wi-Fi Alliance. This is the same year Apple releases its "Airport" Wi-Fi router and builds Wi-Fi connectivity into new Macs.
1092
1999Internet access becomes available to the Saudi Arabian (.sa) public in January
1093
1999vBNS sets up an OC48 link between CalREN South and North using Juniper M40 routers
1094
1999IBM becomes the first Corporate partner to be approved for Internet2 access
1095
1999European Parliament proposes banning the caching of Web pages by ISPs
1096
1999The Internet Fiesta kicks off in March across Europe, building on the success of La Fête de l'Internet held in 1998
1097
1999US State Court rules that domain names are property that may be garnished
1098
1999MCI/Worldcom, the vBNS provider for NSF, begins upgrading the US backbone to 2.5Gbps
1099
1999A forged Web page made to look like a Bloomberg financial news story raised shares of a small technology company by 31% on 7 April.
1100
1999ICANN announces the five testbed registrars for the competitive Shared Registry System on 21 April: AOL, CORE, France Telecom/Oléane, Melbourne IT, Register.com.
1101
1999SETI@Home launches on 17 May and within four weeks its distributed Internet clients provide more computing power than the most powerful supercomputer of its time
1102
1999First large-scale Cyberwar takes place simultaneously with the war in Serbia/Kosovo
1103
1999Abilene, the Internet2 network, reaches across the Atlantic and connects to NORDUnet and SURFnet
1104
1999The Web becomes the focal point of British politics as a list of MI6 agents is released on a UK Web site. Forced to remove the list from the site, it was too late as the list had already been replicated across the Net.
1105
1999Activists Net-wide target the world's financial centers on 18 June, timed to coincide with the G8 Summit. Little actual impact is reported.
1106
1999MCI/Worldcom launches vBNS+, a commercialized version of vBNS targeted at smaller educational and research institutions
1107
1999DoD issues a memo requiring all US military systems to connect via NIPRNET, and not directly to the Internet by 15 Dec 1999 (22 Aug)
1108
1999Somalia gets its first ISP - Olympic Computer (Sep)
1109
1999ISOC approves the formation of the Internet Societal Task Force (ISTF). Vint Cerf serves as first chair
1110
1999Free computers are all the rage (as long as you sign a long term contract for Net service)
1111
1999Country domains registered: Bangladesh (BD), Palestine (PS)
1112
1999vBNS reaches 101 connections
1113
1999US$1M+ Domain Sales: business.com (7.5M on 30 Nov), Wine.com (2.9M), Autos.com (2.2M), WallStreet.com (1M in Apr)
1114
1999RFC 2549: IP over Avian Carriers with Quality of Service
1115
1999RFC 2550: Y10K and Beyond
1116
1999RFC 2551: The Roman Standards Process -- Revision III
1117
1999RFC 2555: 30 Years of RFCs
1118
1999RFC 2626: The Internet and the Millennium Problem (Year 2000)
1119
1999Top 10 TLDs by Host #: com, net, edu, jp, uk, mil, us, de, ca, au
1120
1999Hacks of the Year: Star Wars (8 Jan), .tp (Jan), USIA (23 Jan), E-Bay (13 Mar), US Senate (27 May), NSI (2 Jul), Paraguay Gov't (20 Jul), AntiOnline (5 Aug), Microsoft (26 Oct), UK Railtrack (31 Dec)
1121
1999Technologies of the Year: E-Trade, Online Banking, MP3
1122
1999Emerging Technologies: Net-Cell Phones, Thin Computing, Embedded Computing
1123
1999Napster
1124
1999Miniature Air-Launched Decoy: point of MALD was to develop a small, inexpensive decoy missile to counter air defense measures (first flight test associated with the Miniature Air-Launched Decoy (MALD))
1125
1126
2000 DEVELOPMENTS
1127
2000The Sims is released: he Sims took concepts from Wright's previous game Sim City. Characters controlled by the player were customizable, and spoke an artificial language called Simlish.
1128
2000First camera phone introduced: J-Phone J-SH04; a Sharp-manufactured digital phone with integrated camera: maximum resolution of 0.11 megapixels a 256-color display, and photos could be shared wirelessly.
1129
2000Honda’s Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO) humanoid robot: could walk 1 mph, climb stairs and change its direction after detecting hazards, recognize faces, gestures and the movements
1130
2000Sony releases the PlayStation 2: allowed for DVDs to be played as well as game disks, making it more of an entertainment console than a game console: sold more than a hundred and fifty million units.
1131
2000USB Flash drive: They were faster and had greater data capacity than earlier storage media. Also, they could not be scratched.
1132
2000Y2K bug: date stamps in most previously written software used only two digits to represent year information. This meant that some computers might not be able to distinguish the year 1900 from the year 2000.
1133
2000AMD Gigahertz microprocessor introduced
1134
2000The US timekeeper (USNO) and a few other time services around the world report the new year as 19100 on 1 Jan
1135
2000A massive denial of service attack is launched against major web sites, including Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay in early February
1136
2000Web size estimates by NEC-RI and Inktomi surpass 1 billion indexable pages
1137
2000ICANN redelegates the .pn domain, returning it to the Pitcairn Island community (February)
1138
2000Internet2 backbone network deploys IPv6 (16 May)
1139
2000Various domain name hijackings took place in late May and early June, including internet.com, bali.com, and web.net
1140
2000A testbed allowing the registration of domain names in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean begins operation (Chinese govt blocks internal registrations, stating that registrations in Chinese are its sovereignty right)
1141
2000ICANN selects new TLDs: .aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .pro (16 Nov)
1142
2000Mexico's connection to Internet2 becomes fully operational as the California research network (CalREN-2) is connected with Mexico's Corporación Universitaria para el Desarrollo de Internet (CUDI) network.
1143
2000After months of legal proceedings, the French court rules Yahoo! must block French users from accessing hate memorabilia in its auction site (Nov). ((The case is eventually thrown out (Feb 2003).))
1144
2000The European Commission contracts with a consortium of 30 national research networks for the development of Géant, Europe's new gigabit research network to enhance current capability provided by TEN-155
1145
2000Australian government endorses the transfer of authority for the .au domain to auDA (18 Dec). ICANN signs over control to auDA on 26 Oct 2001.
1146
2000US$1M+ Domain Sales: AsSeenOnTV.com (5.1M)
1147
2000RFC 2795: The Infinite Monkey Protocol Suite
1148
2000Hacks of the Year: RSA Security (Feb), Apache (May), Western Union (Sep), Microsoft (Oct)
1149
2000Technologies of the Year: ASP, Napster
1150
2000Emerging Technologies: Wireless devices, IPv6
1151
2000Viruses of the Year: Love Letter (May)
1152
2000Lawsuits of the Year: Napster, DeCSS
1153
2000
Precision GPS available to public
1154
2000PicoSAT: initiated a microsatellite program featuring extremely small microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio frequency (RF) switches: small satellites could work together
1155
1156
2001 DEVELOPMENTS
1157
2001Digital satellite radio
1158
2001BitTorrent is launched: peer-to-peer file sharing service was initially an open source program, but became closed source in 2005: facilitated theft of their intellectual property.
1159
2001First Apple stores open: not only offered Apple's products, but also software, accessories, and classes on how to use Apple software.
1160
2001Mac OS X is released: more stable and reliable platform and multiple applications could more efficiently be run at the same time.
1161
2001Microsoft enters gaming arena with Xbox: hailed for its high-quality graphics. Graphics acceleration was provided by an nVidia-Microsoft co-designed Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)
1162
2001Steven Spielberg’s A.I. Artificial Intelligence released worldwide: story of David, a humanoid robot that can feel and express emotion: David searches for happiness in a quest to be a real boy
1163
2001The Dot Com Boom…and Bust: As users flock to the Web, the opportunities seem boundless. Nearly everything is ported to the Web, and every business sector, community, and subculture moves online.
1164
2001Windows XP is released: more stable than previous versions of the operating system. XP was widely adopted by industry and persisted much longer than Microsoft planned.
1165
2001iTunes is released: When the Apple iTunes music store was launched, it transformed music distribution and the entire music industry. Less than a week after its launch, over one million songs were downloaded.
1166
2001The first live distributed musical -- The Technophobe & The Madman -- over Internet2 networks debuts on 20 Feb
1167
2001VeriSign extends its multilingual domain testbed to encompass various European languages (26 Feb), and later the full Unicode character set (5 Apr) opening up most of the world's languages
1168
2001Forwarding email in Australia becomes illegal with the passing of the Digital Agenda Act, as it is seen as a technical infringement of personal copyright (4 Mar)
1169
2001Radio stations broadcasting over the Web go silent over actor royalty disputes (10 Apr)
1170
2001High schools in five states (Michigan, Missouri, Oregon, Virginia, and Washington) become the first to gain Internet2 access
1171
2001US Dept of Commerce issues a notice of intent to turn over management for the .edu domain from VeriSign to Educause (Community colleges will finally be able to register under .edu)
1172
2001Napster keeps finding itself embroiled in litigation and is eventually forced to suspend service; it comes back later in the year as a subscription service
1173
2001European Council finalizes an international cybercrime treaty on 22 June and adopts it on 9 November. This is the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet.
1174
2001.biz and .info are added to the root server on 27 June with registrations beginning in July. .biz domain go live on 7 Nov.
1175
2001Afghanistan's Taliban bans Internet access country-wide, including from Government offices, in an attempt to control content (13 Jul)
1176
2001Code Red worm and Sircam virus infiltrate thousands of web servers and email accounts, respectively, causing a spike in Internet bandwidth usage and security breaches (July)
1177
2001Fire in a train tunnel running through Baltimore (MD) seriously damages fiber-optic cables used by backbone providers, disrupting Internet traffic in the Mid-Atlantic states and creating a ripple effect across the US
1178
2001Brazil RNP2 is connected to Internet2's Abilene over 45Mbps line (21 Aug)
1179
2001GÉANT, the pan-European Gigabit Research and Education Network, becomes operational (23 Oct), replacing the TEN-155 network which was closed down (30 Nov)
1180
2001.museum begins resolving (Nov)
1181
2001First uncompressed real-time gigabit HDTV transmission across a wide-area IP network takes place on Internet2 (12 Nov).
1182
2001Dutch SURFnet and Internet2's Abilene connect via gigabit ethernet (15 Nov)
1183
2001.us domain operational responsibility assumed by NeuStar (20 Nov)
1184
2001Email relay established by Sili Bank between Pyongyang, North Korea and Shenyang, China
1185
2001US$1M+ Domain Sales: Insure.com (16.M in Dec)
1186
2001RFC 3091: Pi Digit Generation Protocol
1187
2001RFC 3092: Etymology of "Foo"
1188
2001RFC 3093: Firewall Enhancement Protocol (FEP)
1189
2001Viruses of the Year: Code Red (Jul), Nimda (Sep), SirCam (Jul), BadTrans (Apr, Nov)
1190
2001Emerging Technologies: Grid Computing, P2P
1191
1192
2002 DEVELOPMENTS
1193
2002First version of the .NET framework was released this year. It was developed by Microsoft in order to create a standardized method of programming throughout all of their applications.
1194
2002DARPA's Centibots project: sought to prove that up to 100 robots could survey a potentially dangerous area, build a map in real time, and seek items of interest: The robots were completely autonomous.
1195
2002Earth Simulator is world's fastest supercomputer: massively parallel, vector-based system that costs nearly 60 billion yen (roughly $600 million at the time): fastest supercomputer in the world from 2002 to 2004
1196
2002Handspring introduced the Treo line of smartphones, designed with built-in keyboards, cameras, and the Palm operating system.
1197
2002The Roomba is introduced: Using a cleaning algorithm, the autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner could clean a room while detecting and avoiding obstacles.
1198
2002US ISP Association (USISPA) is created from the former CIX (11 Jan)
1199
2002.name begins resolving (15 Jan)
1200
2002.coop registrations begin (30 Jan)
1201
2002Global Terabit Research Network (GTRN) is formed composed of two OC-48 2.4GB circuits connecting Internet2 Abiline, CANARIE CA*net3, and GÉANT (18 Feb)
1202
2002.aero registrations begin 18 March and beings resolving 2 September
1203
2002Federally recognized US Indian tribes become eligible to register under .gov (26 Apr)
1204
2002Hundreds of Internet radio stations observe a Day of Silence in protest of proposed song royalty rate increases (1 May)
1205
2002The highest wi-fi network in the northeast US is deployed by this Timeline's author. The solar-powered network bridges Mounts Washington and Wildcat in New Hampshire
1206
2002Abilene (Internet2) backbone deploys native IPv6 (5 Aug)
1207
2002The 69/8 IP range is allocated to ARIN in August after having been in the bogon list; users and servers assigned a 69/8 address find themselves blocked from many Internet sites
1208
2002Internet2 now has 200 university, 60 corporate, and 40 affiliate members (2 Sep)
1209
2002Having your own Blog becomes hip
1210
2002Hundreds of Spain-based web sites take their content offline in protest of a new law that took effect on 12 Oct requiring all commercial Web sites to register with the government
1211
2002A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack struck the 13 DNS root servers knocking out all but 5 (21-23 Oct). Amidst national security concerns, VeriSign hastens a planned relocation of one DNS root server
1212
2002A new US law creates a kids-safe "dot-kids" domain (kids.us) to be implemented in 2003 (3 Dec)
1213
2002The FBI teams up with Terras Lycos to disseminate virtual wanted posts across the Web portal's properties (11 Dec)
1214
2002RFC 3251: Electricity over IP
1215
2002RFC 3252: Binary Lexical Octet Ad-hoc Transport
1216
2002High-Productivity Computing: goal of revitalizing supercomputer research and markets, and incubating a new breed of fast, efficient, easier-to-use and affordable machines.
1217
2002Personal Assistant That Learns: military decision-making more efficient at multiple levels of command; reduce need for large command staff; enable smaller, mobile, and less vulnerable command centers.
1218
1219
2003 DEVELOPMENTS
1220
2003Eve OnLine is released: Massive Multi-player Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) begins to blossom with the advent of faster computers with ever-better graphics.
1221
2003Blu-ray optical disc: designed to store high definition video at 1080p, while older DVDs were only capable of 480p resolution.
1222
2003The Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) at MIT is formed with the merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
1223
2003MySpace founded: one of the most important and helped define the second wave of social networking: adding features such as file storage and games.
1224
2003PowerMac G5 is released: first true 64-bit personal computer, the Apple G5 is the most powerful Macintosh ever released to that point.
1225
2003Public Interest Registry (PIR) takes over as .org registry operator on 1 Jan. Transition is completed on 27 Jan. By giving up .org, VeriSign is able to retain control over .com domains
1226
2003The first official Swiss online election takes place in Anières (7 Jan)
1227
2003The registration for domain ogrish.com deleted by German registrar Joker.com at request of a German prosecutor for objectionable content; site however is hosted in the United States and complies with US laws.
1228
2003The SQL Slammer worm causes one of the largest and fastest spreading DDoS attacks ever. (followed in August by the Sobig.F virus: fastest spreading virus ever...
1229
2003Columbia University Professor Tim Wu coins the term Net Neutrality
1230
2003k.root-servers.net changes to using nsd vs. bind to increase diversity of software in the root name server system (19 Feb)
1231
2003.nl registrations open up to anyone, including individuals and foreigners (29 Jan); .se also opens up its registration in April.
1232
2003.af is redelegated on 8 Jan and becomes live once again on 12 Feb with UNDP technical assistance. First domains are moc.gov.af and undp.org.af (15 Feb)
1233
2003.pro sunrise registration begins 23 Apr under .cpa.pro, .law.pro, .med.pro
1234
2003Flash mobs, organized over the Net, start in New York and quickly form in cities worlwide
1235
2003Taxes make headlines: larger US Internet retailers begin collecting taxes on all purchases; some US states tax Internet bandwidth; and EU requires all Internet companies to collect value added tax (VAT)
1236
2003The French Ministry of Culture bans the use of the word "e-mail" by government ministries, and adopts the use of the more French sounding "courriel" (Jul)
1237
2003KRNIC begins offering Hangeul.kr domains (19 Aug)
1238
2003.kids.us sunrise registration begins 17 June and public registration on 9 Sep
1239
2003The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) sues 261 individuals on 8 Sep for allegedly distributing copyright music files over peer-to-peer networks
1240
2003VeriSign deploys a wildcard service (Site Finder) into the .com and .net TLDs causing much confusion as URLs with invalid domains are redirected to a VeriSign page (15 Sep).
1241
2003Last Abilene segment upgraded to 10Gbps (5 Nov)
1242
2003National LambdaRail announced as a new US R&D networking infrastructure. First connection takes place between Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC) and Extensible Terascale Facility (ETF) in Chicago
1243
2003Little GLORIAD (Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development) starts operations (22 Dec), consisting of a networked ring across the northern hemisphere
1244
2003RFC 3514: The Security Flag in the IPv4 Header (The Evil Bit)
1245
2003Skype created - **Identified Through Google Search of Company**
1246
1247
2004 DEVELOPMENTS
1248
2004Facebook launched by Mark Zuckerberg
1249
2004World of Warcraft comes on-line: Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) version of their popular Warcraft franchise: Dominant in the MMORPG market since its release.
1250
2004Google’s IPO and the New, Slow Boom: Google is the first major Web company to float a publicly traded stock since the go-go days of the dot-com boom.
1251
2004Hacker group Anonymous forms: Forming out of interactions on the image-sharing website 4chan, Anonymous is a loose association of users, many of whom consider themselves 'hacktivists'.
1252
2004Opportunity and Spirit Mars Rovers land on Mars
1253
2004“Web 2.0” brings back Interactivity: Web 2.0 sites find various workarounds – from wiki and blogging software to commenting features – to give users a voice.
1254
2004For the first time, there are more instances of DNS root servers outside the US with the launch of an anycast instance of the RIPE NCC operated K-root server
1255
2004Abiline, the Internet2 backbone, upgrade from 2.5Gbps to 10Gbps is completed (4 Feb)
1256
2004Thefacebook launches (4 Feb)
1257
2004Network Solutions begins offering 100 year domain registration (24 Mar)
1258
2004One of the .ly nameservers stops responding (7 Apr) causing the other nameserver to go offline (9 Apr), making the domain inaccessible. Service is restored 13 Apr
1259
2004ICANN authorizes new gTLDs: .asia, .cat, .jobs, .mobi, .tel, and .travel
1260
2004VeriSign Naming and Directory Service (VNDS) begins updating all 13 .com/.net authoritative name servers in near real-time vs. twice each day (8 Sep)
1261
2004Lycos Europe releases a screen saver to help fight spam by keeping spam servers busy with requests (1 Dec). T
1262
2004Verizon begins blocking all email traffic from European ISPs on 22 Dec in an attempt to abate spam from the region into its US network
1263
2004CERNET2, the first backbone IPv6 network in China, is launched by the China Education and Research Network (CERN) connecting 25 universities in 20 cities at speeds of 1-10Gbps (27 Dec)
1264
2004US$1M+ Domain Sales: CreditCards.com (2.75M)
1265
2004Emerging Technologies: Social networking, Web mashups
1266
2004RFC 3751: Omniscience Protocol Requirements
1267
2004Quantum Key Distribution Network: data-encryption framework for protecting a fiber-optic loop that connects facilities at Harvard University, Boston University, and the office of BBN Technologies in Cambridge
1268
2004The Grand Challenge: spurring on American ingenuity to accelerate the development of autonomous vehicle technologies that could be applied to military requirements.
1269
1270
2005 DEVELOPMENTS
1271
2005Arduino: Each credit card-sized Arduino board consisted of an inexpensive microcontroller and signal connectors: ideal for use in any application connecting to or monitoring the outside world.
1272
2005Hadoop is developed: open source software project initially developed by Google as a means of extracting search results from large amounts of unstructured data, such as data found on the web.
1273
2005Lenovo acquires IBM's PC business: Lenovo became the largest manufacturer of PCs in the world with the acquisition, later also acquiring IBM's server line of computers.
1274
2005NASA Ames Research Center supercomputer Columbia: important part of NASA's return to manned spaceflight after the 2003 disaster.
1275
2005Stanford's autonomous vehicle wins 2005 DARPA “Grand Challenge”: Driving autonomously on an off-road, 175-mile long desert course: finished the challenge in less than 7 hours with no human intervention
1276
2005.jobs, .mobi, and .travel begin accepting registrations
1277
2005.se becomes the first ccTLD to implement DNSSEC
1278
2005Estonia offers Internet voting nationally for local elections
1279
2005Pakistan suffers a near complete Internet outage as a submarine cable becomes defective (Jun)
1280
2005Two feuding providers (Cogent, Level 3) sever their peering connection resulting in many customers from one provider not being able to access resources on the other's network (Oct)
1281
2005Number of Internet users reaches 1 Billion (Oct)
1282
2005.eu (European Union) launches on 7 Dec
1283
2005US$1M+ Domain Sales: Fish.com (1.02M)
1284
2005RFC 4041: Requirements for Morality Sections in Routing Area Drafts
1285
2005RFC 4042: UTF-9 and UTF-18 Efficient Transformation Formats of Unicode
1286
2005A-160: extended-range unmanned vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL): A-160, a long-endurance, high-speed unmanned helicopter that flew for 18.7 hours
1287
2005Big Dog: locomotion on a wide variety of terrain, and does navigation. Sensors for locomotion include joint position, joint force, ground contact, ground load, a gyroscope, LIDAR, and a stereo vision system.
1288
2005Chip-Scale Atomic Clock: ultra-miniaturized, low-power, atomic time and frequency reference units:atomic clocks for high-security Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communication and jam-resistant GPS receivers.
1289
1290
2006 DEVELOPMENTS
1291
2006First titles released on Blue-Ray Disk: These earliest releases used MPEG-2 video compression, which is the same method used on standard DVDs.
1292
2006Amazon Web Services Launches Cloud-Based Services: Amazon Elastic Cloud 2 (EC2) and Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). EC2 allowed users to rent virtual time on the cloud.
1293
2006Fiftieth anniversary of seminal artificial intelligence conference: The coining of the term “Artificial Intelligence” was credited to the proposal for the original conference, which is viewed as the founding event of AI.
1294
2006Nintendo Wii comes to market: The Wii console also allowed access to online services providing games, news, and entertainment offerings. It has sold more than a hundred million units worldwide.
1295
2006One Laptop Per Child initiative begins: program to deliver technology and resources to targeted schools in the least developed countries.
1296
2006Verb 'to google' added to dictionaries: both the Oxford English and Merriam-Webster dictionaries added 'google' as a new verb defined as "to use the Google search engine to seek online information."
1297
2006WikiLeaks established: clearinghouse for secret information, news leaks, and anonymous material. Documents from various governments and private organizations can be anonymously posted and distributed
1298
2006“The Cloud”: Computer utilities return: computer utility model starts to became fashionable again under the name “The Cloud,” and is once again a major trend in both networking and computing.
1299
2006.cat registrations begin for Catalan-related domains
1300
2006Zimbabwe looses most of its Internet access after its satellite connectivity is cut by the provider for non-payment
1301
2006ICANN lifts price controls on .biz, .info, and .org domain names, after the same was done for .net in 2005, raising fears of tiered pricing where popular domains would cost more
1302
2006US Government prohibits private (anonymized) domain registrations for .us after 26 Jan
1303
2006First tweet is sent out by Jack Dorsey (21 Mar) -- "just setting up my twttr"
1304
2006ICANN board votes against .xxx TLD (10 May), only to approve it five years later
1305
2006The 6bone, an IPv6 testbed, is phased out after 10 years operation (6 Jun)
1306
2006.ax (Åland Islands) ccTLD comes into service on 15 Aug
1307
2006.cm registry implements wildcard domains redirecting all .com typos to its own page (Aug)
1308
2006Internet2 connectivity begins switching from Abilene to its new network (Nov)
1309
2006Internet connectivity to southeast Asia is severely limited after major fiber optic lines are severely damaged by an earthquake in Taiwan and subsequent underwater muslides (Dec)
1310
2006North Korean email relay upgraded to an always-on connection
1311
2006US$1M+ Domain Sales: Sex.com (14M?), Diamond.com (7.5M), Vodka.com (3M), Cameras.com (1.5M)
1312
2006Emerging Technologies: Cloud computing
1313
2006MiTex: advanced high-payoff technologies from a variety of potential candidates, including lightweight power and propulsion systems, avionics, structures, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components...
1314
2006Revolutionizing Prosthetics: new generation of prosthetic limb that promises them unprecedented, near-natural arm and hand motion.
1315
1316
2007 DEVELOPMENTS
1317
2007Apple’s Steve Jobs introduced the first iPhone to the public: The two initial 4 gigabyte and 8 gigabyte models caused a major reaction in the tech world, with customers lining up outside stores nationwide.
1318
2007Amazon released the first Kindle e-reader, which sold out in just 5.5 hours
1319
2007Portal is introduced: Featuring complicated puzzles, a science fiction setting, and a passive-aggressive robot named GlaDOS, Portal is designed by Valve Entertainment.
1320
2007Checkers is Solved: created a checkers program called “CHINOOK”, which played successfully in several man-machine competitions.
1321
2007Dropbox is founded: cloud-based service used for convenient storage and access to files: upload files via the web to Dropbox’s vast server farms: instantly access them on any of their devices or computers
1322
2007First 1 TB hard disk drive (HDD): Hitachi Deskstar 7K1000 used five 3.5-inch 200 GB platters and rotated at 7,200 RPM: reater storage capacity by a factor of 300,000 and was thousands of times smaller.
1323
2007Hulu is founded: Though only available in the US, Hulu also brought series from around the world to the service, as well as producing original content.
1324
2007Nvidia releases Cuda GPU: Computer Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) was a concept that allowed for GPUs to do some of the functions usually reserved for the Central Processing Unit (CPU)
1325
2007Scratch is publicly released: Its interface allowed novice users to stack and organize block commands to write programs. Scratch has millions of users worldwide and is available in more than 40 languages.
1326
2007The Amazon Kindle is released: first to gain a large following among consumers. The first Kindle featured wireless access to content via Amazon.com, along with an SD card slot allowing increased storage.
1327
2007The Apple iPhone is released: a combination of web browser, music player and cell phone - which could download new functionality in the form of "apps" (applications) from the online Apple store: touchscrene
1328
2007ICANN drops .um domain name (US minor outlying islands) for lack of use (Jan)
1329
2007Estonia offers the first online national parliamentary elections on 26-28 Feb
1330
2007ICANN terminates RegisterFly.com's registrar status on 16 Mar (effective 31 Mar)
1331
2007Internet2 traffic in the Northeast US is disrupted on 1 May when a homeless man starts a fire under a Boston bridge causing a fiber break
1332
2007Use of #hashtag proposed by Tweeter user number 1,186, Chris Messina (23 Aug)
1333
2007Internet2's Abilene network is retired (Sep) as the last connections are switched over to the new Level 3 network
1334
2007Internet2 completes US East to West coast span of its 100GB/s network on 9 Oct
1335
2007.asia sunrise period begins in October
1336
2007US$1M+ Domain Sales: Porn.com (9.5M), Computer.com (2.1M), Seniros.com (1.8M), Tandberg.com (1.5M), Scores.com, Vista.com (1.25M), Chinese.com (1.12M), Guy.com (1M), Topix.com (1M)
1337
2007RFC 4824: The Transmission of IP Datagrams over the Semaphore Flag Signaling System (SFSS)
1338
2007Fitbit founded
1339
2007Autonomous High-Altitude Refueling: show that high-performance aircraft can easily perform automated refueling from conventional tankers (pilot was on board to set conditions and monitor safety)
1340
2007DARPA Urban Challenge: build an autonomous vehicle capable of driving in traffic, performing complex maneuvers such as merging, passing, parking, and negotiating intersections (6 crossed finish line)
1341
2007Orbital Express: validate the technical feasibility of robotic, autonomous on-orbit refueling and reconfiguration of satellites to support a broad range of future U.S. national security and commercial space programs
1342
1343
2008 DEVELOPMENTS
1344
2008WALL-E debuts: about a robot left to clean up Earth after humans abandon a littered and dying home planet.
1345
2008The MacBook Air is released: To reduce its size, the traditional hard drive was replaced with a solid-state disk, the first mass-market computer to do so.
1346
2008NASA tests first deep space communications network modeled on the Internet, using the Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN) software to transmit images to/from science spacecraft 20 million miles above Earth
1347
2008Google's crawler reaches 1 trillion pages, although only a fraction are indexed by the search engine. For comparison, Google's original index had 26 million pages in 1998, and reached 1 billion in 2000
1348
2008The Middle East, India, and other parts of Africa and Asia see a major degradation in Internet service, including outages, after several undersea cables carrying Internet traffic to the region are cut within 1 week
1349
2008IPv6 addresses are added for the first time to 6 of the root zone servers (4 Feb)
1350
2008YouTube becomes unreacheable for a couple of hours after Pakistan Telecom starts an unauthorized announcement of YouTube's subnet prefix (24 Feb)
1351
2008US$1M+ Domain Sales: Fund.com (9.9M), Clothes.com (4.9M), Shopping.de (2.8M), Kredit.de (1.17M), Cruises.co.uk (1.09M), Invest.com (1.01M)
1352
2008RFC 5241: Naming Rights in IETF Protocols
1353
2008RFC 5242: A Generalized Unified Character Code: Western European and CJK Sections
1354
2008Topological Data Analysis (TDA) program: spawned a commercial firm, in this case a software firm that remained in business at the posting of this timeline in 2018
1355
1356
2009 DEVELOPMENTS
1357
2009The first commercially available 3-D printer, based on the RepRap concept, was introduced this year. These affordable, “entry-level” products were known as Bfb RapMan 3-D printers
1358
2009Minecraft is introduced: flexible and creative building system for modeling real-world processes or things. Users have built entire computers, cities, and even planets out of Minecraft components.
1359
2009Plants vs. Zombies is released: The game was ported to many different systems, including the iPad, Steam, and PlayStation 3.
1360
2009Bitcoin: use of peer-to-peer networks to generate a “crypto-currency.” In the Bitcoin system, users run software that searches for blocks of data, the discovery of which reward the users with Bitcoins.
1361
2009Cloud-based network-attached storage solutions: servers could automatically back up data to remote servers: designed for data protection, and backup capability it also provided a data recovery solution.
1362
2009IBM's Roadrunner supercomputer is completed: first computer to reach a sustained performance of 1 petaflop (one thousand trillion floating point operations per second): used two different microprocessors.
1363
2009Jaguar Supercomputer at Oak Ridge upgraded: cost more than $100 million to create and ran a variation of the Linux operating system with up to 10 petabytes of storage.
1364
2009The Mobile Web hits the Mass Market: 3G networks for higher speed mobile data had been spreading fast. Smart-phones create a new computing platform that brings mobile Web browsing to a large audience.
1365
2009DNSSEC becomes operational on .gov (28 Feb), .org (2 Jun), .us (15 Dec)
1366
2009.tel registrations begin
1367
2009Bitcoins start being minted
1368
2009US Department of Commerce relaxes control over ICANN, in favor of a multi-national oversight group
1369
2009Domain tasting gets severely curtailed after ICANN raises the 2008-introduced fee for erroneously registered domains from $0.20 to $6.95; domain kiting however conitnues
1370
2009Twitter is asked by the US Government to delay planned maintenance of its service on 15 June as a result of heavy use by Iranian users during unrest in that country
1371
2009.se domains become unreachable for an hour on 12 Oct after an incorrectly configured software update modifies all registrations
1372
2009ICANN opens up applications for internationalized domain names (16 Nov)
1373
2009Crowdfunding becomes a popular means of raising startup funds; Kickstart founded on April 28
1374
2009Emerging Technologies: Location awareness
1375
2009US$1M+ Domain Sales: Insure.com (16M), Toys.com (5.1M), Auction.com (1.7M), Candy.com (3M), Webcam.com (1.02M), Fly.com (1.76M), Call.com (1.1M), Ticket.com (1.53M), Russia.com (1.5M)
1376
2009RFC 5513: IANA Considerations for Three Letter Acronyms
1377
2009RFC 5514: IPv6 over Social Networks
1378
2009Red Balloon Challenge: explored the roles that the Internet and social networking play in the timely communication, wide-area team-building, and urgent mobilization to solve broad-scope, time-critical problems
1379
1380
2010 DEVELOPMENTS
1381
2010Angry Birds becomes top-selling mobile game: As touchscreen-enabled tablets and smartphones proliferate, mobile games became top-sellers.
1382
2010Apple Retina Display: With a screen resolution of up to 400 pixels-per-inch (PPI), Retina displays approached the limit of pixel visibility to the human eye.
1383
2010China's Tianhe supercomputers are operational: peak speed of over a petaflop (one thousand trillion calculations per second): ran solar energy simulations & some of the most complex molecular studies ever
1384
2010First Emily Howell album released: music composition program called Emily Howell: incorporate feedback from listeners to influence its compositions.
1385
2010IBM’s Watson defeats Jeopardy! contestants: analyzing natural language questions and content more accurately and faster than its human counterparts.
1386
2010Reports of the Stuxnet virus surface: The virus attempted to damage uranium enrichment centrifuges used in Iran’s nuclear development program by causing damaging speed variations.
1387
2010The Apple iPad is released: Apps, games, and accessories helped spur the popularity of the iPad
1388
2010Astronaut T.J. Creamer inaugurates the new International Space Station direct link to the Internet (aka Crew Support LAN) with a tweet (22 Jan)
1389
2010A Chinese root DNS server is taken offline after disrupting some services in Chile and US (Mar)
1390
2010Google announces on 22 January that along with 20+ other US companies, it had been the target of a cyber attack originating in China, and on 22 March stops censoring its services in China
1391
2010Google+ service launches in public beta on 28 June; surpasses 10M users in Jul 2011, 100M in Feb 2012, and 400M in Sep 2012
1392
2010Root DNS zone digitally signed (DNSSEC) for first time (15 Jul)
1393
2010Number of registered domain reach 200M (~ Aug)
1394
2010A BGP experiment between RIPE NCC and Duke U results in a partial Internet outage (27 Aug)
1395
2010US Senate authorizes US Dept of Homeland Security to seize domains of sites suspected of piracy (Nov)
1396
2010Myanmar is temporarily taken offline by a denial of service attack (Nov)
1397
2010Verisign announced DNSSEC deployed to .net (10 Dec)
1398
2010Photo-sharing sees a renewal with the launch of social-based services such as Pinterest and Instagram
1399
2010Domain Sales: Poker.org (1M), Flying.com (1.1M), Photo.com (1.25M), Dating.com (1.75M), Slots.com (5.5M), fb.com (8.5M), Zip.com (1.6M), Sex.com (13M)
1400
2010RFC 5841: TCP Option to Denote Packet Mood
1401
2010High-Altitude LIDAR: High-Altitude LIDAR Operations Experiment (HALOE) provided unprecedented access to high-resolution 3-D geospatial data.
1402
1403
2011 DEVELOPMENTS
1404
2011Adobe Creative Cloud is announced as a subscription and cloud-based model of distribution for its major software products. Adobe Acrobat, Illustrator, Dreamweaver, Photoshop, and others.
1405
2011Arab Spring protests spread by social media: Many of these protests were organized or promoted on sites such as Twitter and Facebook, and commentary appearing on popular blogs spread news
1406
2011IBM Sequoia is delivered to Lawrence Livermore Labs: world's fastest supercomputer: studies of human electrophysiology, nuclear weapon simulation, human genome mapping, and global climate change
1407
2011Nest Learning Thermostat is Introduced: allowed for remote access to a user’s home’s thermostat by using a smartphone or tablet: could also send monthly power consumption reports to help save energy bills.
1408
2011Passing of Steve Jobs: Jobs had transformed six different industries: music, animated movies, personal computers, telephones, tablet computing and digital publishing.
1409
2011Siri is Announced: voice-activated personal assistant, Siri could “understand” natural language requests and also adjust the information it retrieved from the web by learning user tendencies and preferences.
1410
2011LinkedIn reaches 100M users (Mar); surpasses 200M in Jan 2013
1411
2011Egypt shuts down its last ISP on 31 Jan and remains offline for two days
1412
2011Number Resource Organization (NRO) announces full depletion of available IPv4 addresses free pool (3 Feb)
1413
2011US Dept of Homeland Defense seizes 10 domains, including mistakenly mooo.com which hosted 84,000 web sites and remain unavailable for two days (11 Feb)
1414
2011Internet traffic in Lybia is significantly curtailed for several days in February
1415
2011APNIC releases last block of IPv4 address in its available pool (14 Apr)
1416
2011.xxx goes live in root servers (15 Apr)
1417
2011First non-Latin TLDs (IDN) are inserted into root zone (5 May): مصر (Egypt), السعودية (AlSaudiah), امارات (Emarat)
1418
2011Millions of .de domains unreachable for hours (12 May)
1419
2011World IPv6 Day is 8 June
1420
2011Number of Internet users reaches 2 Billion (Nov)
1421
2011US$1M+ Domain Sales: DomainName.com (1M in May), Social.com (2.6M in Jul), Box.com (1M in Jul)
1422
2011RFC 5984: Increasing Throughput in IP Networks with ESP-Based Forwarding: ESPBasedForwarding
1423
2011RFC 6214: Adaptation of RFC 1149 for IPv6
1424
2011RFC 6217: Regional Broadcast Using an Atmospheric Link Layer
1425
2011Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 (HTV-2): unmanned, rocket-launched, maneuverable aircraft that glides through the Earth’s atmosphere at incredibly fast speeds—Mach 20
1426
2011Radar for UAVs: Vehicle and Dismount Exploitation Radar (VADER) program to design and deploy a radar system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or small manned aircraft.
1427
1428
2012 DEVELOPMENTS
1429
2012Facebook Acquires Instagram: Instagram, an image-sharing and social networking application, is purchased by Facebook for nearly $1 billion.
1430
2012Raspberry Pi, a credit-card-size single board computer, is released as a tool to promote science education: credit card-sized computer features ease of use and simplicity: popular with students and hobbyists.
1431
2012ICANN begins accepting applications for new generic top-level domains (gTLDs) on 12 Jan
1432
2012Facebook reaches 1 billion monthly active users (604M mobile) on 14 Sep @ 12:50pm PT, with 581M daily on average
1433
2012Amazon becomes the largest hosting location by number of web-facing computers (118k), knocking China Telecom from first place (116k)
1434
2012Canadian online sports gambling company Bodog has its .com domain name ceased by US Dept of Homeland Security, causing fear among international businesses
1435
2012World IPv6 Launch is 6 June
1436
2012Minitel shuts down at the end of June
1437
2012GoDaddy service goes down, making millions of sites inaccessible for several hours (10 Sep)
1438
2012RIPE NCC distributes last blocks of IPv4 address space from available pool (14 Sep)
1439
2012Twitter surpasses 200M active users (Dec), and 500M tweets per day (Oct)
1440
2012NASA's Curiosity Rover checks-in on FourSquare from Mars (3 Oct)
1441
2012PKNIC is hacked and 284 Pakistani web sites, including apple.pk and google.pk, appear defaced (24 Nov)
1442
2012Syria is disconnected from the Internet for two days (29 Nov - 1 Dec)
1443
2012"Gangnam Style" becomes the first YouTube video to reach 1 billion views (21 Dec)
1444
2012US$1M+ Domain Sales: PersonalLoans.com (1M in Feb), GiftCard.com (4M in Oct), Investing.com (2.45M in Dec)
1445
2012RFC 6592: The Null Packet
1446
2012RFC 6593: Service Undiscovery Using Hide-and-Go-Seek for the Domain Pseudonym System (DPS)
1447
2012Intrachip/Interchip Enhanced Cooling (ICECool) The increased density of electronic components and subsystems in military electronic systems exacerbates the thermal management challenges facing engineers.
1448
1449
2013 DEVELOPMENTS
1450
2013Samsung Galaxy Gear was released onto the market as a wearable smartwatch in 2013. This product is Android-based and serves as a companion for the Samsung line of Galaxy smartphones.
1451
2013Former CIA employee and NSA contractor Edward Snowden copied hundreds of thousands of documents from his workplace covering dozens of confidential US national security programs.
1452
2013Microsoft had not released a new version of the Xbox for almost eight years when it introduces the Xbox One with the Kinect movement-based user interface,.
1453
2013The PlayStation 4 (PS4) - Sony chose AMD's x86-64 Accelerated Processing Unit to serve as both central processing unit and graphics processing unit, built together onto on a single chip.
1454
2013Stable Release of Microsoft Office 365: Word, Excel, OneNote, PowerPoint, Outlook, Access, and Publisher monthly or annual subscription: Also 1 TB of cloud storage on Microsoft’s One Drive .
1455
2013Netflix and YouTube account for over 50% of Internet traffic measured by bytes
1456
2013New gTLDs added to domain name root zone (24 Oct): شبكة (web), онлайн (online), сайт (site), and 游戏 (game)
1457
2013US National Security Agency (NSA) is revealed to be collecting considerable more Internet data than previously thought, including encrypted information from major Internet sites
1458
2013Yahoo hacked with credentials of 3 billion accounts stolen, not discovered until years later
1459
2013US$1M+ Domain Sales: ig.com (4.7M in Sep), 114.com (2.1M in Jul), ebet.com (1.35M in Oct), kk.com (2.4M in Nov)
1460
2013RFC 6919: Further Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels
1461
2013RFC 6921: Design Considerations for Faster-Than-Light (FTL) Communication
1462
2013The number of Internet hosts surpass 1billion
1463
2013Blast Gauge: Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) developed the Blast Gauge, a small device worn by warfighters to measure blast exposure and cue medics for initial response.
1464
2013Debut of Atlas Robot: disaster-response robot: A tether connected the robot to both an off-board power supply and computer through which a human operator issued commands.
1465
2013LS3 Pack Mule: four-legged robot: (LS3), to integrate with squads of Marines or Soldiers. LS3 demonstrated that a highly mobile, semi-autonomous legged robot could carry 400 lbs of a squad’s load
1466
2013STARnet Established: DARPA and key companies from the semiconductor and defense industries established the Semiconductor Technology Advanced Research Network, or STARnet.
1467
2013World-record power output levels using silicon-based technologies for millimeter-wave power amplifiers. RF power amplifiers are used to boost power levels for more reliable distance transmission of signals.
1468
1469
2014 DEVELOPMENTS
1470
2014Samsung’s SmartThings technology was showcased at the International Consumer Electronics Show
1471
2014Silicon Valley TV series: film and television producers have begun to create content focusing on tech workers and start-up business culture.
1472
2014Apple Pay is Released: device’s near field communications (NFC) interface, Passbook app, and Apple’s Touch ID system worked in tandem with point-of-sale systems in retail outlets to complete transactions.
1473
2014Gamergate: Several prominent women in gaming, began receiving death threats on social media, while others experienced various forms of abuse, including releasing personal information online, or “doxxing.”
1474
2014HTML 5 is announced as the successor to HTML 4: improvements for multimedia, such as simplifying the embedding of content such as streaming video and games into web pages.
1475
2014Heartbleed bug is uncovered as a dangerous security flaw in the code base of the OpenSSL cryptographic software library: OSSL protected the world’s web servers: 20% were found to be vulnerable to attack.
1476
2014Sony Hack: Sony suffers one of the largest hacks in corporate history, with hackers claiming to have accessed more than a hundred terabytes of confidential information (North Korean comedy: The Interview)
1477
2014The University of Michigan Micro Mote (M3) is the smallest computer in the world at the time of its completion: Motes are also known as “smart dust,".
1478
2014Most of the Internet traffic in China is redirected to US-based Dynamic Internet Technology for over an hour (21 Jan)
1479
2014Registration begins for the first few of hundreds new Latin gTLDs, including .guru, .bike, .clothing, .holdings, .ventures, .singles, and .plumbing (29 Jan)
1480
2014.py ccTLD hacked -- full whois registry data leaked and domains redirected (e.g., google.com.py) (20 Feb)
1481
2014The number of Web servers surpass 1billion
1482
2014ICANN announces that it has begun allocating the remaining IPv4 addresses to the five regional Internet registries after LACNIC's supply dropped to below 8 million (20 May)
1483
2014After an EU court ruling requiring Google to honor "requests to be forgotten", 12,000 requests are submitted in the first day (30 May)
1484
2014Many networks are taken offline due to a Verizon glitch introducing thousands of new prefixes into the global routing table, causing popular but unpatched Cisco routers to reach their 512,000 limit and crash
1485
2014RFC 7168: The Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol for Tea Efflux Appliances (HTCPCP-TEA)
1486
2014RFC 7169: The NSA (No Secrecy Afforded) Certificate Extension
1487
2014Hacks of the Year: Sony Pictures, Home Depot, JP Morgan, eBay
1488
2014Bugs of the year: Heartbleed (Dec 2011 - 7 Apr), Poodle (Nov 1996 - 14 Oct), Shellshock (Sep 1989 - 24 Sep)
1489
2014ICANN domain auction sales (US$): .tech (6.76M), .realty (5.59M), .salon (5.1M), .buy (4.6M), .mls (3.359M), .baby (3.09M), .vip (3M), .spot (2.2M)
1490
2014US$1M+ Domain Sales: mm.com (1.2M in Jul), sex.xxx (3M in Jun), medicare.com (4.8M in May), mi.com (3.6M in Apr), 37.com (1.96M in Mar), youxi.com (2.43M in Mar), whisky.com (3.1M in Jan)
1491
2014DARPA in 2014 created its Biological Technologies Office (BTO), which has enabled a new level of momentum for DARPA’s portfolio of innovative, biology-based programs.
1492
2014Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance (EXACTO): successful live-fire tests demonstrating in-flight guidance of .50-caliber bullets: hit targets that were offset from where the sniper rifle was aimed.
1493
2014Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM): ability to discriminate between targets and conduct tactical engagements from extended ranges.
1494
2014Memex program: state of the art in content indexing and web searching on the Internet: Memex quickly proved its value in efforts to counter human trafficking.
1495
2014Spectrum Challenge Finals: competition designed to encourage development of programmable radios that can deliver high-priority transmissions in congested and contested spectrum environments.
1496
1497
2015 DEVELOPMENTS
1498
2015Apple’s HomeKit slated to launch
1499
2015Apple Watch: incorporating a version of Apple's iOS operating system, as well as sensors for environmental and health monitoring: Designed to be incorporated into the Apple environment.
1500
2015FCC issues Net Neutrality decision: one of the founding principles of the internet: ISPs were required to follow FCC guidelines that include net neutrality as a principle.
1501
2015Gates Joins Musk, Hawking in Expressing Fear of AI: thoughts on the potentially dangerous effects and unintended consequences of artificial intelligence on human civilization.
1502
2015A Georgian scavenging for copper cuts off much of the Internet in neighbouring Armenia when her spade slices a buried cable (28 Mar)
1503
2015Largest TLDs by zone size as of 2Q: .com, .tk, .de, .net, .cn, .uk, .org, .ru, .nl, .info
1504
2015Largest ccTLDs by zone size as of 2Q: .tk, .de, .cn, .uk, .ru, .nl, .eu, .br, .au, .fr
1505
2015HTTP header "X-Clacks-Overhead: GNU Terry Pratchett" is served by ~84,000 web sites (Jun) 3 months after Sir Pratchett's death
1506
2015Let's Encrypt holds key ceremony to generate the root key and intermediary certificates for its free certificate authority (4 Jun) and issues the first certificate for helloworld.letsencrypt.org on 14 Sep
1507
2015U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) net neutrality rule takes effect (12 Jun)
1508
2015ARIN activates IPv4 Unmet Requests policy, rejecting an IPv4 block request for the first time (1 Jul). ARIN's free pool depletes on 24 Sep.
1509
2015Out of 100 billion monthly Google searches, those from mobile devices surpass desktops for the first time
1510
20151 billion users (1 in 7 people on Earth) access Facebook on a single day (24 Aug)
1511
2015IANA designates .onion a special use domain for anonymous hidden services on the Tor network (9 Sep)
1512
2015WordPress powers 25% of web sites as of early November
1513
2015Most of the internal Internet connectivity in Azerbaijan is lost as a result of a fire in a telecommunications facility (16 Nov)
1514
2015RFC 7511: Scenic Routing for IPv6
1515
2015RFC 7514: Really Explicit Congestion Notification (RECN)
1516
2015Hacks of the Year: US Office of Personnel Management, Ashley Madison, Anthem, T-Mobile, IRS
1517
2015ICANN domain auction sales (US$): .app (25M), .hotels (2.2M), .ping (1.5M)
1518
2015US$1M+ Domain Sales: Porno.com (8.8M in Feb), PX.com (1M in Sep), 588.com (1M in Sep)
1519
2015CHIKV Challenge: To accelerate the development of new infectious disease forecasting methods, DARPA launched its CHIKV Challenge.
1520
2015DARPA Robotics Challenge: competition of robot systems and software teams vying to develop robots capable of assisting humans in responding to natural and man-made disasters
1521
1522
2016 DEVELOPMENTS
1523
2016Internet Society celebrates 25th anniversary (1 Jan)
1524
2016Let's Encrypt issues millionth certificate (8 Mar), 2M (21 Apr), 10M (9 Sep), 20M (27 Nov)
1525
2016ICANN introduces 1000th gTLD from 2012 application window (25 May)
1526
2016United Nations Human Rights Council adopts a resolution on the promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet (27 Jun)
1527
2016A California District Court Judge grants a motion for what is thought to be the first permitted serving of a lawsuit via Twitter (30 Sep)
1528
2016DDoS attacks wreak havoc across the Internet with some topping over 1Tbps in bandwidth and powered by over 150,000 hacked Internet devices
1529
2016Several prominent Internet sites become unreacheable as domain infrastructure provider Dyn is knocked offline by a DDoS attack (21 Oct)
1530
2016IPv6 reaches 10% deployment globally, and becomes the dominant (>50%) Internet protocol for US mobile networks
1531
2016Coordination and management of the Internet's unique identifiers transition to the private sector as the IANA contract between ICANN and the US Dept of Commerce's NTIA expires (1 Oct)
1532
2016Yahoo discloses 500 million accounts compromised in 2014 (22 Sep) and that 1 billion accounts were compromised in Aug 2013 (14 Dec)
1533
2016.cn surpasses .tk in ccTLD zone size
1534
2016Annual global IP traffic surpasses 1 zettabyte
1535
2016US$1M+ Domain Sales: HG.com (3.7M in Nov), Vivo.com (2.1M in Nov), Jade.com (1.25M in Jul), LA.com (1.2M in May)
1536
2016Cyber Grand Challenge: professional bug hunters, security coders, and other security pros work endless hours, searching millions of lines of code to find and fix vulnerabilities that others can exploit.
1537
2016SIGMA: develop and test low-cost, high-efficiency radiation sensors that detect gamma and neutron radiation and to network them via smartphones: real-time awareness of potential nuclear and radiological...
1538
2016Spectrum Collaboration Challenge: goal of ensuring that the exponentially growing number of military and civilian wireless devices will have full access to the increasingly crowded electromagnetic spectrum.
1539
2016SST Transition: Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) from an Agency-led design and construction program to ownership and operation by U.S. Air Force Space Command (AFSPC)
1540
1541
2017 DEVELOPMENTS
1542
2017IETF enters into an agreement with the National Library of Sweden for archival of RFC series in NLS' bunker (16 Jan)
1543
2017Dozens of politically motivated Internet shutdowns occur globally including in Cameroon (Jan-Apr), Togo (Sep), and Equatorial Guinea (Nov)
1544
2017Average volume of encrypted traffic on Firefox surpasses the average unencrypted volume (Feb) and reaches 66% by year end
1545
2017dmoz.org, an early web directory, shuts down after 19 years (17 Mar)
1546
2017AfriNIC is the last Regional Internet Registry to run out of IPv4 addresses (Apr)
1547
2017WannaCry ransomware attack spreads to over 150 countries (12 May)
1548
2017IPv6 connectivity advertised by 9M domain names and 23% of all networks
1549
2017Let's Encrypt reaches 100M certificates milestone (28 Jun)
1550
2017A security researcher is able to "hijack" the .io TLD by registering expired nameserver domain names (5 Jul)
1551
2017W3C announced publication of Encrypted Media Extensions, a web-based digital-rights management capability, resulting in the first appeal request in its history (6 Jul)
1552
2017Equifax credit agency discovers a breach of its systems that resulted in the disclosure of sensitive information on 145M+ people (29 Jul)
1553
2017Facebook and other social media services are found to have been used by foreign governments to influence elections in the U.S. and other countries
1554
2017Google leaks 160,000 BGP routes in Chicago with 25,000+ of them for NTT OCN greatly impacting Internet traffic in Japan (25 Aug)
1555
2017Hurricanes knock out Internet service to Puerto Rico and other Caribbean islands for extended periods (Aug-Sep)
1556
2017Russia announces plans to develop a backup DNS system for use by BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) to be implemented within one year
1557
2017Zimbabwe loses most of its Internet access for several hours as a result of simultaneous outages at two main international providers, including a tractor fiber cut in South Africa (5 Dec)
1558
2017IP addresses for Google, Facebook, Apple, and others, are re-routed to Russian provider Megafon when one of its transit providers leak route data to the global Internet (12 Dec)
1559
2017U.S. FCC votes to repeal net neutrality (14 Dec)
1560
2017AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) and CompuServe Forums cease service after 20+ years (15 Dec)
1561
2017U.S. Library of Congress announces it will cease archiving every tweet at year end
1562
2017Facebook reaches 2 billion active monthly users, YouTube 1.5B, WhatsApp 1.2B, WeChat 889M, Instagram 700M, Twitter 330M
1563
2017Number of domain name registrations across all TLDs surpasses 330M, with 130M in .com, 145M across ccTLDs, and 21M across new gTLDs, as of 3Q
1564
2017Largest TLDs by zone size as of 3Q: .com, .cn, .tk, .de, .net, .uk, .org, .ru, .info, .nl
1565
2017Largest ccTLDs by zone size as of 3Q: .cn, .tk, .de, .uk, .ru, .nl, .br, .eu, .au, .fr
1566
2017Largest new global TLD (ngTLDs) as of 3Q: .xyz, .loan, .top, .win, .club, .online, .vip, .wang, .bid, .site
1567
2017RFC 8135: Complex Addressing in IPv6
1568
2017RFC 8136: Additional Transition Functionality for IPv6
1569
2017RFC 8140: The Arte of ASCII: Or, An True and Accurate Representation of an Menagerie of Thynges Fabulous and Wonderful in Ye Forme of Character
1570
2017US$1M+ Domain Sales: Fly.com (2.89M in May), ETH.com (2M in Oct), Freedom.com (2M in May), 01.com (1.82M in Feb), 20.com (1.75M in Apr), MyWorld.com (1.2M in Oct)
1571
2017Bay Area SDR Hackfest: DARPA embarked on a year-long effort to build an engaged community of engineers and scientists operating within relevant technical areas -- Hackers working together...
1572
2017Electronics Resurgence Initiative: ensure far-reaching improvements in electronics performance by way of miniaturizing transistors and other components and increasing the complexity of component integration.
1573
2017Joint University Microelectronics Program (JUMP): goal is to catalyze innovations for increasing the performance, efficiency, and overall capabilities of broad classes of electronics systems
1574
2017Service Academies Swarm Challenge: To help make effective swarm tactics with small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other robots a reality (offensive and defensive tactics for swarms of small UAVs.)
1575
1576
2018 DEVELOPMENTS
1577
2018DARPA took its Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV) program to one of the best finish lines the Agency knows of—an official transfer of a technology (Sea-Hunter)
1578
2018Wallmart Pattents New "Listening to the Frontend" Technology for auditory survailance ((Concerns about use)) - **Identified Via Current News**