ABF
1
BCE DEVELOPMENTS
5
6
ACE-1400's DEVELOPMENTS
12
13
1500's DEVELOPMENTS
19
20
1600's DEVELOPMENTS
31
32
Early 1700's DEVELOPMENTS
38
39
Late 1700's DEVELOPMENTS
52
53
Early 1800's DEVELOPMENTS
81
82
Late 1800's DEVELOPMENTS
113
114
1900's DEVELOPMENTS
125
126
1910's DEVELOPMENTS
129
130
1920's DEVELOPMENTS
136
137
1930's DEVELOPMENTS
148
149
1940 DEVELOPMENTS
151
152
1941 DEVELOPMENTS
156
157
1942 DEVELOPMENTS
159
160
1943 DEVELOPMENTS
168
169
1944 DEVELOPMENTS
172
173
1945 DEVELOPMENTS
179
180
1946 DEVELOPMENTS
185
186
1947 DEVELOPMENTS
189
190
1948 DEVELOPMENTS
195
196
1949 DEVELOPMENTS
207
208
1950 DEVELOPMENTS
216
217
1951 DEVELOPMENTS
227
228
1952 DEVELOPMENTS
234
235
1953 DEVELOPMENTS
242
243
1954 DEVELOPMENTS
246
247
1955 DEVELOPMENTS
251
252
1956 DEVELOPMENTS
261
262
1957 DEVELOPMENTS
269
270
1958 DEVELOPMENTS
280
281
1959 DEVELOPMENTS
289
290
1960 DEVELOPMENTS
299
300
1961 DEVELOPMENTS
315
316
1962 DEVELOPMENTS
328
329
1963 DEVELOPMENTS
339
340
1964 DEVELOPMENTS
357
358
1965 DEVELOPMENTS
369
370
1966 DEVELOPMENTS
382
383
1967 DEVELOPMENTS
393
394
1968 DEVELOPMENTS
412
413
1969 DEVELOPMENTS
432
433
1970 DEVELOPMENTS
446
447
1971 DEVELOPMENTS
469
470
1972 DEVELOPMENTS
485
486
1973 DEVELOPMENTS
510
511
1974 DEVELOPMENTS
521
522
1975 DEVELOPMENTS
538
539
1976 DEVELOPMENTS
550
551
1977 DEVELOPMENTS
566
567
1978 DEVELOPMENTS
580
581
1979 DEVELOPMENTS
599
600
1980 DEVELOPMENTS
611
612
1981 DEVELOPMENTS
632
633
1982 DEVELOPMENTS
651
652
1983 DEVELOPMENTS
676
677
1984 DEVELOPMENTS
700
701
1985 DEVELOPMENTS
718
719
1986 DEVELOPMENTS
740
741
1987 DEVELOPMENTS
760
761
1988 DEVELOPMENTS
782
783
1989 DEVELOPMENTS
809
810
1990 DEVELOPMENTS
833
834
1991 DEVELOPMENTS
862
863
1992 DEVELOPMENTS
886
887
1993 DEVELOPMENTS
916
917
1994 DEVELOPMENTS
953
954
1995 DEVELOPMENTS
993
994
1996 DEVELOPMENTS
1025
1026
1997 DEVELOPMENTS
1050
1051
SIOP TECHNOLOGY TIMELINE BEGINS IN 1998
1052
1053
1998 DEVELOPMENTS
1054
1998Furby ignites buying frenzy: Each Furby initially spoke only “Furbish” but could gradually learn English commands. It communicated with other nearby Furbies using an infrared port between its eyes.
1055
1998Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) releases Maya: a next generation 3D animation tool, basing it on code from previous systems created by Wavefront and Alias.
1056
1998US Congress passes the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (or DMCA), which stiffened the punishment for violating copyright on the Internet.
1057
1998The iMac, a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers, is launched: First new product under leadership of Steve Jobs, considered most significant step in Apple's return from near-bankruptcy.
1058
1998Hobbes' Internet Timeline is released as RFC 2235 & FYI 32
1059
1998US Depart of Commerce (DoC) releases the Green Paper outlining its plan to privatize DNS on 30 January. This is followed up by a White Paper on June 5
1060
1998La Fête de l'Internet, a country-wide Internet fest, is held in France 20-21 March
1061
1998Web size estimates range between 275 (Digital) and 320 (NEC) million pages for 1Q
1062
1998Companies flock to the Turkmenistan NIC in order to register their name under the .tm domain, the English abbreviation for trademark
1063
1998Internet users get to be judges in a performance by 12 world champion ice skaters on 27 March, marking the first time a television sport show's outcome is determined by its viewers.
1064
1998Network Solutions registers its 2 millionth domain on 4 May
1065
1998Electronic postal stamps become a reality, with the US Postal Service allowing stamps to be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web.
1066
1998Canada kicks off CA*net 3, the first national optical internet
1067
1998CDA II and a ban on Net taxes are signed into US law (21 October)
1068
1998ABCNews.com accidentally posts test US election returns one day early (2 November)
1069
1998Indian ISP market is deregulated in November causing a rush for ISP operation licenses
1070
1998US DoC enters into an agreement with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers (ICANN) to establish a process for transitioning DNS from US Government management to industry (25 November)
1071
1998San Francisco sites without off-city mirrors go offline as the city blacks out on 8 December
1072
1998Chinese government puts Lin Hai on trial for "inciting the overthrow of state power" for providing 30,000 email addresses to a US Internet magazine (December) ((He is later sentenced to two years in jail))
1073
1998French Internet users give up their access on 13 December to boycott France Telecom's local phone charges (which are in addition to the ISP charge)
1074
1998US$1M+ Domain Sales: Altavista.com (3.3M) to Compaq
1075
1998Open source software comes of age
1076
1998RFC 2321: RITA -- The Reliable Internetwork Troubleshooting Agent
1077
1998RFC 2322: Management of IP numbers by peg-dhcp
1078
1998RFC 2323: IETF Identification and Security Guidelines
1079
1998RFC 2324: Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP/1.0)
1080
1998Country domains registered: Nauru (NR), Comoros (KM)
1081
1998Bandwidth Generators: Winter Olympics (Feb), World Cup (Jun-Jul), Starr Report (11 Sep), Glenn space launch
1082
1998Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, net, edu, mil, jp, us, uk ,de, ca, au
1083
1998Hacks of the Year: US Dept of Commerce (20 Feb), New York Times (13 Sep), China Society for Human Rights Studies (26 Oct), UNICEF (7 Jan)
1084
1998Technologies of the Year: E-Commerce, E-Auctions, Portals
1085
1998Emerging Technologies: E-Trade, XML, Intrusion Detection
1086
1998Automated essay scoring used
1087
1998O*NET created
1088
1089
1999 DEVELOPMENTS
1090
1999inspired by Dungeons & Dragons and Multi-User Domains (MUDs), John Smedley develops EverQuest, a fantasy-themed Massively Multi-player Online Role-Playing Game, or MMORPG.
1091
1999The Matrix released: featured computer-generated effects, and popularized 'bullet-time' - a multi-camera technique where the camera appears to move at normal speed while the action filmed appears slowed.
1092
1999IBM Microdrive: At the time of their introduction, they were the smallest hard drives in the world (Many handheld, mobile devices contained embedded Microdrives for data storage).
1093
1999Nvidia releases the GeForce 256: A new approach, based on processor specially designed to manipulate graphics, was initiated and the resulting product was known as a “Graphics Processing Unit,” or “GPU”
1094
1999The AIBO robotic pet dog: $2,000 “Artificial Intelligence RoBOt” was a robotic pet dog designed to “learn” by interacting with its environment, its owners and other AIBOs.
1095
1999The Mobile Web arrives in Japan: Japanese mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo creates the i-mode networking standard for mobile data in 1999.
1096
1999WiFi: IEEE 802.11b short-range radio networking standard is rebranded “Wi-Fi” by the Wi-Fi Alliance. This is the same year Apple releases its "Airport" Wi-Fi router and builds Wi-Fi connectivity into new Macs.
1097
1999Internet access becomes available to the Saudi Arabian (.sa) public in January
1098
1999vBNS sets up an OC48 link between CalREN South and North using Juniper M40 routers
1099
1999IBM becomes the first Corporate partner to be approved for Internet2 access
1100
1999European Parliament proposes banning the caching of Web pages by ISPs
1101
1999The Internet Fiesta kicks off in March across Europe, building on the success of La Fête de l'Internet held in 1998
1102
1999US State Court rules that domain names are property that may be garnished
1103
1999MCI/Worldcom, the vBNS provider for NSF, begins upgrading the US backbone to 2.5Gbps
1104
1999A forged Web page made to look like a Bloomberg financial news story raised shares of a small technology company by 31% on 7 April.
1105
1999ICANN announces the five testbed registrars for the competitive Shared Registry System on 21 April: AOL, CORE, France Telecom/Oléane, Melbourne IT, Register.com.
1106
1999SETI@Home launches on 17 May and within four weeks its distributed Internet clients provide more computing power than the most powerful supercomputer of its time
1107
1999First large-scale Cyberwar takes place simultaneously with the war in Serbia/Kosovo
1108
1999Abilene, the Internet2 network, reaches across the Atlantic and connects to NORDUnet and SURFnet
1109
1999The Web becomes the focal point of British politics as a list of MI6 agents is released on a UK Web site. Forced to remove the list from the site, it was too late as the list had already been replicated across the Net.
1110
1999Activists Net-wide target the world's financial centers on 18 June, timed to coincide with the G8 Summit. Little actual impact is reported.
1111
1999MCI/Worldcom launches vBNS+, a commercialized version of vBNS targeted at smaller educational and research institutions
1112
1999DoD issues a memo requiring all US military systems to connect via NIPRNET, and not directly to the Internet by 15 Dec 1999 (22 Aug)
1113
1999Somalia gets its first ISP - Olympic Computer (Sep)
1114
1999ISOC approves the formation of the Internet Societal Task Force (ISTF). Vint Cerf serves as first chair
1115
1999Free computers are all the rage (as long as you sign a long term contract for Net service)
1116
1999Country domains registered: Bangladesh (BD), Palestine (PS)
1117
1999vBNS reaches 101 connections
1118
1999US$1M+ Domain Sales: business.com (7.5M on 30 Nov), Wine.com (2.9M), Autos.com (2.2M), WallStreet.com (1M in Apr)
1119
1999RFC 2549: IP over Avian Carriers with Quality of Service
1120
1999RFC 2550: Y10K and Beyond
1121
1999RFC 2551: The Roman Standards Process -- Revision III
1122
1999RFC 2555: 30 Years of RFCs
1123
1999RFC 2626: The Internet and the Millennium Problem (Year 2000)
1124
1999Top 10 TLDs by Host #: com, net, edu, jp, uk, mil, us, de, ca, au
1125
1999Hacks of the Year: Star Wars (8 Jan), .tp (Jan), USIA (23 Jan), E-Bay (13 Mar), US Senate (27 May), NSI (2 Jul), Paraguay Gov't (20 Jul), AntiOnline (5 Aug), Microsoft (26 Oct), UK Railtrack (31 Dec)
1126
1999Technologies of the Year: E-Trade, Online Banking, MP3
1127
1999Emerging Technologies: Net-Cell Phones, Thin Computing, Embedded Computing
1128
1999Napster
1129
1999Objet Geometries Is Founded and Introduces 3D-Printed Objects That Can Simulate Different Material Properties in One Object: Specializing in high-resolution rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, Objet Geometries Ltd. produces the first 3D printer that can print both hard and soft materials, and a range of hardnesses in between, that look, feel and function like the final product.
1130
1999Voxeljet Is Founded: The company’s goal is to develop new generative processes for casting and producing plastic components using 3D printing. Voxeljet focuses on large-scale production, making the molds for several automotive companies’ engines
1131
1999Scientists Create the First 3D-Printed Organ: Scientists at the Wake Forrest Institute for Regenerative Medicine create the first 3D-printed lab-grown organ, a bladder. The bladder is made from a patient’s own cells, significantly reducing the risk for rejection if implanted. (Note: This organ was not implanted; for the first working 3Dprinted organ, see 2003.)
1132
1999Miniature Air-Launched Decoy: point of MALD was to develop a small, inexpensive decoy missile to counter air defense measures (first flight test associated with the Miniature Air-Launched Decoy (MALD))
1133
1999"Electronic-Human Resource Management" coined
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/33706230/surfing.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DSURFING_FOR_SUCCESS_THE_CONVERGENCE_OF_H.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=ASIATUSBJ6BAHCRMDPNC%2F20200409%2Fus-east-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Date=20200409T184105Z&X-Amz-Expires=3600&X-Amz-Security-Token=IQoJb3JpZ2luX2VjEOv%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2FwEaCXVzLWVhc3QtMSJHMEUCIQCRMScaGjPoVfRvFJAAfmVFnFzXJPgQZjrKfVKHdYeL5gIgXq3H0JHUgJwDvfZt9PCIrDK3mSwCEEUOK9ssVEcXlNgqvQMI8%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2F%2FARAAGgwyNTAzMTg4MTEyMDAiDEYh8xaaL%2Bl7ZtxksyqRA3vm%2Fl39FyN3hXz9q1oLriu%2FcosipgF0ziUkHWFjUGibWRqzvyeroK9HzZJFpL4MyyjAtqr2XDFiv%2BhCJfAg%2F9W32jd%2BWXCKePCIKJzW41RS0qxL9fdCdRnqb4GpdENa9f0Dgxv8NC74TDhcfB6BnHwG8shw9lixfAxyvr4bIsE8vg2TbR%2BmqKtrq3UVs%2FapCh7GZFa7Dg7vx91Pv%2Bp5psD3v9Ber%2FfYFZLtN%2FteEYWbLw9cSDUV7ISVDxEUdDSGjh3F3Jiy%2F4T9oHH3ouSr%2FdMRkDd2fFDZjVU0DDtI6Yy%2FLeq9J%2Fxegu9Bp561anprjnVL6clvhnrY4TTdnM94xs5IjgUBmmHcMGQ2ETR7ESUtoUK4lY6tpOElmBR2BvgI9yXlDBgFXcFQDLoD32bffYDA568bNNeT4Wk7pa3aeGOo%2BYtdxijVNpbfZYDtAHznjUjybu5rqw2BLuDd7Qqc2FiFIK1npWbQwFu%2FQpy%2Bi8CzRo76R290d300x%2FwHpuUyZPjjwwA1LdLZEe69kGths31RMJ7OvfQFOusBqqSpEOKDmgsMojy88hAjJiXNei%2BcG7j3ulypzT3W9c1e7UW8GAqF%2FA4HCmkPGvyAcutGgb2mVQlxUG1x%2B9%2FBv%2F2BsVBYbXqzL4uHMGtbNiJr81ePeBfNiQ%2BrTgldD%2F5UHv92zHSPtUhttE7FQAiTrbGuTjltQmQzmHu%2FlPer6Zf%2FjMe78PQM%2BBHeVEKpNpfVUNCmXGeeF9yYTT4IyOigNcNuta5iDCffOXrBnJgP9ep4E%2BZuN1pTEIxlMi%2F4xfPZC5PUwt1aUoPu0nhR6nzzBCG1plbcic0niAxed02IStBjUOJYbuK%2FI3lOaA%3D%3D&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Signature=a0e91f55fef613fe428c844307b84065e49c766abc59e06733a814a07e326b6e
1134
1999"Internet of Things" coined
1135
1999Emojis created
1136
1137
2000 DEVELOPMENTS
1138
2000The Sims is released: he Sims took concepts from Wright's previous game Sim City. Characters controlled by the player were customizable, and spoke an artificial language called Simlish.
1139
2000First camera phone introduced: J-Phone J-SH04; a Sharp-manufactured digital phone with integrated camera: maximum resolution of 0.11 megapixels a 256-color display, and photos could be shared wirelessly.
1140
2000Honda’s Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO) humanoid robot: could walk 1 mph, climb stairs and change its direction after detecting hazards, recognize faces, gestures and the movements
1141
2000Sony releases the PlayStation 2: allowed for DVDs to be played as well as game disks, making it more of an entertainment console than a game console: sold more than a hundred and fifty million units.
1142
2000USB Flash drive: They were faster and had greater data capacity than earlier storage media. Also, they could not be scratched.
1143
2000Y2K bug: date stamps in most previously written software used only two digits to represent year information. This meant that some computers might not be able to distinguish the year 1900 from the year 2000.
1144
2000AMD Gigahertz microprocessor introduced
Information technology timeline. (2003). IETE Journal of Education, 44(1), 21-22. doi:10.1080/09747338.2003.11415792
1145
2000The US timekeeper (USNO) and a few other time services around the world report the new year as 19100 on 1 Jan
1146
2000A massive denial of service attack is launched against major web sites, including Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay in early February
1147
2000Web size estimates by NEC-RI and Inktomi surpass 1 billion indexable pages
1148
2000ICANN redelegates the .pn domain, returning it to the Pitcairn Island community (February)
1149
2000Internet2 backbone network deploys IPv6 (16 May)
1150
2000Various domain name hijackings took place in late May and early June, including internet.com, bali.com, and web.net
1151
2000A testbed allowing the registration of domain names in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean begins operation (Chinese govt blocks internal registrations, stating that registrations in Chinese are its sovereignty right)
1152
2000ICANN selects new TLDs: .aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .pro (16 Nov)
1153
2000Mexico's connection to Internet2 becomes fully operational as the California research network (CalREN-2) is connected with Mexico's Corporación Universitaria para el Desarrollo de Internet (CUDI) network.
1154
2000After months of legal proceedings, the French court rules Yahoo! must block French users from accessing hate memorabilia in its auction site (Nov). ((The case is eventually thrown out (Feb 2003).))
1155
2000The European Commission contracts with a consortium of 30 national research networks for the development of Géant, Europe's new gigabit research network to enhance current capability provided by TEN-155
1156
2000Australian government endorses the transfer of authority for the .au domain to auDA (18 Dec). ICANN signs over control to auDA on 26 Oct 2001.
1157
2000US$1M+ Domain Sales: AsSeenOnTV.com (5.1M)
1158
2000RFC 2795: The Infinite Monkey Protocol Suite
1159
2000Hacks of the Year: RSA Security (Feb), Apache (May), Western Union (Sep), Microsoft (Oct)
1160
2000Technologies of the Year: ASP, Napster
1161
2000Emerging Technologies: Wireless devices, IPv6
1162
2000Viruses of the Year: Love Letter (May)
1163
2000Lawsuits of the Year: Napster, DeCSS
1164
2000Precision GPS available to public
1165
2000Mammoth Stereolithography Machine Allows for Large-Scale Printing: Materialise launches the Mammoth Stereolithography machine, which has a build area of more than two meters. This enables the large-scale creation of 3D objects in one piece through the successive addition of liquid polymer hardened using a laser beam.
1166
2000PicoSAT: initiated a microsatellite program featuring extremely small microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio frequency (RF) switches: small satellites could work together
1167
2000Beta version of R created
1168
2000Texting popularized
1169
1170
2001 DEVELOPMENTS
1171
2001Digital satellite radio
1172
2001BitTorrent is launched: peer-to-peer file sharing service was initially an open source program, but became closed source in 2005: facilitated theft of their intellectual property.
1173
2001First Apple stores open: not only offered Apple's products, but also software, accessories, and classes on how to use Apple software.
1174
2001Mac OS X is released: more stable and reliable platform and multiple applications could more efficiently be run at the same time.
1175
2001Microsoft enters gaming arena with Xbox: hailed for its high-quality graphics. Graphics acceleration was provided by an nVidia-Microsoft co-designed Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)
1176
2001Steven Spielberg’s A.I. Artificial Intelligence released worldwide: story of David, a humanoid robot that can feel and express emotion: David searches for happiness in a quest to be a real boy
1177
2001The Dot Com Boom…and Bust: As users flock to the Web, the opportunities seem boundless. Nearly everything is ported to the Web, and every business sector, community, and subculture moves online.
1178
2001Windows XP is released: more stable than previous versions of the operating system. XP was widely adopted by industry and persisted much longer than Microsoft planned.
1179
2001iTunes is released: When the Apple iTunes music store was launched, it transformed music distribution and the entire music industry. Less than a week after its launch, over one million songs were downloaded.
1180
2001The first live distributed musical -- The Technophobe & The Madman -- over Internet2 networks debuts on 20 Feb
1181
2001VeriSign extends its multilingual domain testbed to encompass various European languages (26 Feb), and later the full Unicode character set (5 Apr) opening up most of the world's languages
1182
2001Forwarding email in Australia becomes illegal with the passing of the Digital Agenda Act, as it is seen as a technical infringement of personal copyright (4 Mar)
1183
2001Radio stations broadcasting over the Web go silent over actor royalty disputes (10 Apr)
1184
2001High schools in five states (Michigan, Missouri, Oregon, Virginia, and Washington) become the first to gain Internet2 access
1185
2001US Dept of Commerce issues a notice of intent to turn over management for the .edu domain from VeriSign to Educause (Community colleges will finally be able to register under .edu)
1186
2001Napster keeps finding itself embroiled in litigation and is eventually forced to suspend service; it comes back later in the year as a subscription service
1187
2001European Council finalizes an international cybercrime treaty on 22 June and adopts it on 9 November. This is the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet.
1188
2001.biz and .info are added to the root server on 27 June with registrations beginning in July. .biz domain go live on 7 Nov.
1189
2001Afghanistan's Taliban bans Internet access country-wide, including from Government offices, in an attempt to control content (13 Jul)
1190
2001Code Red worm and Sircam virus infiltrate thousands of web servers and email accounts, respectively, causing a spike in Internet bandwidth usage and security breaches (July)
1191
2001Fire in a train tunnel running through Baltimore (MD) seriously damages fiber-optic cables used by backbone providers, disrupting Internet traffic in the Mid-Atlantic states and creating a ripple effect across the US
1192
2001Brazil RNP2 is connected to Internet2's Abilene over 45Mbps line (21 Aug)
1193
2001GÉANT, the pan-European Gigabit Research and Education Network, becomes operational (23 Oct), replacing the TEN-155 network which was closed down (30 Nov)
1194
2001.museum begins resolving (Nov)
1195
2001First uncompressed real-time gigabit HDTV transmission across a wide-area IP network takes place on Internet2 (12 Nov).
1196
2001Dutch SURFnet and Internet2's Abilene connect via gigabit ethernet (15 Nov)
1197
2001.us domain operational responsibility assumed by NeuStar (20 Nov)
1198
2001Email relay established by Sili Bank between Pyongyang, North Korea and Shenyang, China
1199
2001US$1M+ Domain Sales: Insure.com (16.M in Dec)
1200
2001RFC 3091: Pi Digit Generation Protocol
1201
2001RFC 3092: Etymology of "Foo"
1202
2001RFC 3093: Firewall Enhancement Protocol (FEP)
1203
2001Viruses of the Year: Code Red (Jul), Nimda (Sep), SirCam (Jul), BadTrans (Apr, Nov)
1204
2001Emerging Technologies: Grid Computing, P2P
1205
2001Open source encyclopedia created (Wikipedia)
1206
1207
2002 DEVELOPMENTS
1208
2002First version of the .NET framework was released this year. It was developed by Microsoft in order to create a standardized method of programming throughout all of their applications.
1209
2002DARPA's Centibots project: sought to prove that up to 100 robots could survey a potentially dangerous area, build a map in real time, and seek items of interest: The robots were completely autonomous.
1210
2002Earth Simulator is world's fastest supercomputer: massively parallel, vector-based system that costs nearly 60 billion yen (roughly $600 million at the time): fastest supercomputer in the world from 2002 to 2004
1211
2002Handspring introduced the Treo line of smartphones, designed with built-in keyboards, cameras, and the Palm operating system.
1212
2002The Roomba is introduced: Using a cleaning algorithm, the autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner could clean a room while detecting and avoiding obstacles.
1213
2002US ISP Association (USISPA) is created from the former CIX (11 Jan)
1214
2002.name begins resolving (15 Jan)
1215
2002.coop registrations begin (30 Jan)
1216
2002Global Terabit Research Network (GTRN) is formed composed of two OC-48 2.4GB circuits connecting Internet2 Abiline, CANARIE CA*net3, and GÉANT (18 Feb)
1217
2002.aero registrations begin 18 March and beings resolving 2 September
1218
2002Federally recognized US Indian tribes become eligible to register under .gov (26 Apr)
1219
2002Hundreds of Internet radio stations observe a Day of Silence in protest of proposed song royalty rate increases (1 May)
1220
2002The highest wi-fi network in the northeast US is deployed by this Timeline's author. The solar-powered network bridges Mounts Washington and Wildcat in New Hampshire
1221
2002Abilene (Internet2) backbone deploys native IPv6 (5 Aug)
1222
2002The 69/8 IP range is allocated to ARIN in August after having been in the bogon list; users and servers assigned a 69/8 address find themselves blocked from many Internet sites
1223
2002Internet2 now has 200 university, 60 corporate, and 40 affiliate members (2 Sep)
1224
2002Having your own Blog becomes hip
1225
2002Hundreds of Spain-based web sites take their content offline in protest of a new law that took effect on 12 Oct requiring all commercial Web sites to register with the government
1226
2002A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack struck the 13 DNS root servers knocking out all but 5 (21-23 Oct). Amidst national security concerns, VeriSign hastens a planned relocation of one DNS root server
1227
2002A new US law creates a kids-safe "dot-kids" domain (kids.us) to be implemented in 2003 (3 Dec)
1228
2002The FBI teams up with Terras Lycos to disseminate virtual wanted posts across the Web portal's properties (11 Dec)
1229
2002RFC 3251: Electricity over IP
1230
2002RFC 3252: Binary Lexical Octet Ad-hoc Transport
1231
2002Fast, High-Quality 3D Objects Become Available Envisiontec starts manufacturing their Perfactory Machine (first unveiled in 2001) that allows for the production of exceptionally large 3D parts at fast speeds without sacrificing surface quality and part accuracy. The machine eliminates the look of visible line layers and has a build volume of 500 x 600 x 400mm (20 x 24 x 16 inches).
1232
2002High-Productivity Computing: goal of revitalizing supercomputer research and markets, and incubating a new breed of fast, efficient, easier-to-use and affordable machines.
1233
2002Personal Assistant That Learns: military decision-making more efficient at multiple levels of command; reduce need for large command staff; enable smaller, mobile, and less vulnerable command centers.
1234
2002 “Gamification” coined
1235
2002“Unproctored internet testing” coined
1236
2002 “Cyberloafing” coined
1237
1238
2003 DEVELOPMENTS
1239
2003Eve OnLine is released: Massive Multi-player Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) begins to blossom with the advent of faster computers with ever-better graphics.
1240
2003Blu-ray optical disc: designed to store high definition video at 1080p, while older DVDs were only capable of 480p resolution.
1241
2003The Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) at MIT is formed with the merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
1242
2003MySpace founded: one of the most important and helped define the second wave of social networking: adding features such as file storage and games.
1243
2003PowerMac G5 is released: first true 64-bit personal computer, the Apple G5 is the most powerful Macintosh ever released to that point.
1244
2003Public Interest Registry (PIR) takes over as .org registry operator on 1 Jan. Transition is completed on 27 Jan. By giving up .org, VeriSign is able to retain control over .com domains
1245
2003The first official Swiss online election takes place in Anières (7 Jan)
1246
2003The registration for domain ogrish.com deleted by German registrar Joker.com at request of a German prosecutor for objectionable content; site however is hosted in the United States and complies with US laws.
1247
2003The SQL Slammer worm causes one of the largest and fastest spreading DDoS attacks ever. (followed in August by the Sobig.F virus: fastest spreading virus ever...
1248
2003Columbia University Professor Tim Wu coins the term Net Neutrality
1249
2003k.root-servers.net changes to using nsd vs. bind to increase diversity of software in the root name server system (19 Feb)
1250
2003.nl registrations open up to anyone, including individuals and foreigners (29 Jan); .se also opens up its registration in April.
1251
2003.af is redelegated on 8 Jan and becomes live once again on 12 Feb with UNDP technical assistance. First domains are moc.gov.af and undp.org.af (15 Feb)
1252
2003.pro sunrise registration begins 23 Apr under .cpa.pro, .law.pro, .med.pro
1253
2003Flash mobs, organized over the Net, start in New York and quickly form in cities worlwide
1254
2003Taxes make headlines: larger US Internet retailers begin collecting taxes on all purchases; some US states tax Internet bandwidth; and EU requires all Internet companies to collect value added tax (VAT)
1255
2003The French Ministry of Culture bans the use of the word "e-mail" by government ministries, and adopts the use of the more French sounding "courriel" (Jul)
1256
2003KRNIC begins offering Hangeul.kr domains (19 Aug)
1257
2003.kids.us sunrise registration begins 17 June and public registration on 9 Sep
1258
2003The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) sues 261 individuals on 8 Sep for allegedly distributing copyright music files over peer-to-peer networks
1259
2003VeriSign deploys a wildcard service (Site Finder) into the .com and .net TLDs causing much confusion as URLs with invalid domains are redirected to a VeriSign page (15 Sep).
1260
2003Last Abilene segment upgraded to 10Gbps (5 Nov)
1261
2003National LambdaRail announced as a new US R&D networking infrastructure. First connection takes place between Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC) and Extensible Terascale Facility (ETF) in Chicago
1262
2003Little GLORIAD (Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development) starts operations (22 Dec), consisting of a networked ring across the northern hemisphere
1263
2003RFC 3514: The Security Flag in the IPv4 Header (The Evil Bit)
1264
2003Arcam Launches the First Commercial Electron Beam Melting (EBM) System This system melts metal powder together, layer by layer, using an electron beam in a high-temperature vacuum.
1265
2003Other Important Developments EOS introduces the first laser-sintered, metal-based powder machine. Z Corp introduces the world’s first commercially available multiple-color 3D printer. The first 3D-printed working organ, a kidney, is created in China.
1266
2003Skype created
1267
2003Professional social media created (LinkedIn)
1268
1269
2004 DEVELOPMENTS
1270
2004Facebook launched by Mark Zuckerberg
1271
2004World of Warcraft comes on-line: Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) version of their popular Warcraft franchise: Dominant in the MMORPG market since its release.
1272
2004Google’s IPO and the New, Slow Boom: Google is the first major Web company to float a publicly traded stock since the go-go days of the dot-com boom.
1273
2004Hacker group Anonymous forms: Forming out of interactions on the image-sharing website 4chan, Anonymous is a loose association of users, many of whom consider themselves 'hacktivists'.
1274
2004Opportunity and Spirit Mars Rovers land on Mars
1275
2004“Web 2.0” brings back Interactivity: Web 2.0 sites find various workarounds – from wiki and blogging software to commenting features – to give users a voice.
1276
2004For the first time, there are more instances of DNS root servers outside the US with the launch of an anycast instance of the RIPE NCC operated K-root server
1277
2004Abiline, the Internet2 backbone, upgrade from 2.5Gbps to 10Gbps is completed (4 Feb)
1278
2004Thefacebook launches (4 Feb)
1279
2004Network Solutions begins offering 100 year domain registration (24 Mar)
1280
2004One of the .ly nameservers stops responding (7 Apr) causing the other nameserver to go offline (9 Apr), making the domain inaccessible. Service is restored 13 Apr
1281
2004ICANN authorizes new gTLDs: .asia, .cat, .jobs, .mobi, .tel, and .travel
1282
2004VeriSign Naming and Directory Service (VNDS) begins updating all 13 .com/.net authoritative name servers in near real-time vs. twice each day (8 Sep)
1283
2004Lycos Europe releases a screen saver to help fight spam by keeping spam servers busy with requests (1 Dec). T
1284
2004Verizon begins blocking all email traffic from European ISPs on 22 Dec in an attempt to abate spam from the region into its US network
1285
2004CERNET2, the first backbone IPv6 network in China, is launched by the China Education and Research Network (CERN) connecting 25 universities in 20 cities at speeds of 1-10Gbps (27 Dec)
1286
2004US$1M+ Domain Sales: CreditCards.com (2.75M)
1287
2004Emerging Technologies: Social networking, Web mashups
1288
2004RFC 3751: Omniscience Protocol Requirements
1289
2004Quantum Key Distribution Network: data-encryption framework for protecting a fiber-optic loop that connects facilities at Harvard University, Boston University, and the office of BBN Technologies in Cambridge
1290
2004The Grand Challenge: spurring on American ingenuity to accelerate the development of autonomous vehicle technologies that could be applied to military requirements.
1291
2004"Cyber incivility" coined
1292
2004Commercial virtual worlds created (World of Warcraft)
1293
1294
2005 DEVELOPMENTS
1295
2005Arduino: Each credit card-sized Arduino board consisted of an inexpensive microcontroller and signal connectors: ideal for use in any application connecting to or monitoring the outside world.
1296
2005Hadoop is developed: open source software project initially developed by Google as a means of extracting search results from large amounts of unstructured data, such as data found on the web.
1297
2005Lenovo acquires IBM's PC business: Lenovo became the largest manufacturer of PCs in the world with the acquisition, later also acquiring IBM's server line of computers.
1298
2005NASA Ames Research Center supercomputer Columbia: important part of NASA's return to manned spaceflight after the 2003 disaster.
1299
2005Stanford's autonomous vehicle wins 2005 DARPA “Grand Challenge”: Driving autonomously on an off-road, 175-mile long desert course: finished the challenge in less than 7 hours with no human intervention
1300
2005.jobs, .mobi, and .travel begin accepting registrations
1301
2005.se becomes the first ccTLD to implement DNSSEC
1302
2005Estonia offers Internet voting nationally for local elections
1303
2005Pakistan suffers a near complete Internet outage as a submarine cable becomes defective (Jun)
1304
2005Two feuding providers (Cogent, Level 3) sever their peering connection resulting in many customers from one provider not being able to access resources on the other's network (Oct)
1305
2005Number of Internet users reaches 1 Billion (Oct)
1306
2005.eu (European Union) launches on 7 Dec
1307
2005US$1M+ Domain Sales: Fish.com (1.02M)
1308
2005RFC 4041: Requirements for Morality Sections in Routing Area Drafts
1309
2005RFC 4042: UTF-9 and UTF-18 Efficient Transformation Formats of Unicode
1310
2005First Fully Articulated 3D-Printed Furniture Created French artist Patrick Jouin creates the C1 chair, which is built as a cellular structure superimposed onto a standard chair form. The same year, Materialise produces the first 3D-printed stool that is printed in one piece, complete with concealed hinges.
1311
2005First At-Home 3D Printers Emerge The RepRap project, founded by Dr. Adrian Bowyer at the University of Bath, brings the world the first at-home 3D printer.
1312
2005A-160: extended-range unmanned vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL): A-160, a long-endurance, high-speed unmanned helicopter that flew for 18.7 hours
1313
2005Big Dog: locomotion on a wide variety of terrain, and does navigation. Sensors for locomotion include joint position, joint force, ground contact, ground load, a gyroscope, LIDAR, and a stereo vision system.
1314
2005Chip-Scale Atomic Clock: ultra-miniaturized, low-power, atomic time and frequency reference units:atomic clocks for high-security Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communication and jam-resistant GPS receivers.
1315
2005“Coworking” coined
1316
2005Crowdsourcing platform created (MTurk)
1317
2005"Big Data" coined
1318
1319
2006 DEVELOPMENTS
1320
2006First titles released on Blue-Ray Disk: These earliest releases used MPEG-2 video compression, which is the same method used on standard DVDs.
1321
2006Amazon Web Services Launches Cloud-Based Services: Amazon Elastic Cloud 2 (EC2) and Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). EC2 allowed users to rent virtual time on the cloud.
1322
2006Fiftieth anniversary of seminal artificial intelligence conference: The coining of the term “Artificial Intelligence” was credited to the proposal for the original conference, which is viewed as the founding event of AI.
1323
2006Nintendo Wii comes to market: The Wii console also allowed access to online services providing games, news, and entertainment offerings. It has sold more than a hundred million units worldwide.
1324
2006One Laptop Per Child initiative begins: program to deliver technology and resources to targeted schools in the least developed countries.
1325
2006Verb 'to google' added to dictionaries: both the Oxford English and Merriam-Webster dictionaries added 'google' as a new verb defined as "to use the Google search engine to seek online information."
1326
2006WikiLeaks established: clearinghouse for secret information, news leaks, and anonymous material. Documents from various governments and private organizations can be anonymously posted and distributed
1327
2006“The Cloud”: Computer utilities return: computer utility model starts to became fashionable again under the name “The Cloud,” and is once again a major trend in both networking and computing.
1328
2006.cat registrations begin for Catalan-related domains
1329
2006Zimbabwe looses most of its Internet access after its satellite connectivity is cut by the provider for non-payment
1330
2006ICANN lifts price controls on .biz, .info, and .org domain names, after the same was done for .net in 2005, raising fears of tiered pricing where popular domains would cost more
1331
2006US Government prohibits private (anonymized) domain registrations for .us after 26 Jan
1332
2006First tweet is sent out by Jack Dorsey (21 Mar) -- "just setting up my twttr"
1333
2006ICANN board votes against .xxx TLD (10 May), only to approve it five years later
1334
2006The 6bone, an IPv6 testbed, is phased out after 10 years operation (6 Jun)
1335
2006.ax (Åland Islands) ccTLD comes into service on 15 Aug
1336
2006.cm registry implements wildcard domains redirecting all .com typos to its own page (Aug)
1337
2006Internet2 connectivity begins switching from Abilene to its new network (Nov)
1338
2006Internet connectivity to southeast Asia is severely limited after major fiber optic lines are severely damaged by an earthquake in Taiwan and subsequent underwater muslides (Dec)
1339
2006North Korean email relay upgraded to an always-on connection
1340
2006US$1M+ Domain Sales: Sex.com (14M?), Diamond.com (7.5M), Vodka.com (3M), Cameras.com (1.5M)
1341
2006Emerging Technologies: Cloud computing
1342
2006Multi-Material 3D Printer Available to the Public The Fab@Home project, one of the first open-source DIY printing projects, brings multi-material printing to the public that is low-cost and “hackable.”
1343
20063D-Printed Cobalt Chrome and Stainless Steel The first laser-sintered 3D Printer, EOSINT M 270 by EOS, prints cobalt chrome and stainless steel.
1344
2006MiTex: advanced high-payoff technologies from a variety of potential candidates, including lightweight power and propulsion systems, avionics, structures, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components...
1345
2006Revolutionizing Prosthetics: new generation of prosthetic limb that promises them unprecedented, near-natural arm and hand motion.
1346
2006Non-military drone used
1347
2006"Deep learning" coined
Sadiku, M. N., Tembely, M., & Musa, S. M. (2017). Deep learning. International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science, 2, 77-78. |&| G. E. Hinton and R. R. Salakhutdinov, “Reducing the dimensionality of data with neural networks,” Science, vol. 313, pp. 504-507, 2006.
1348
1349
2007 DEVELOPMENTS
1350
2007Apple’s Steve Jobs introduced the first iPhone to the public: The two initial 4 gigabyte and 8 gigabyte models caused a major reaction in the tech world, with customers lining up outside stores nationwide.
1351
2007Amazon released the first Kindle e-reader, which sold out in just 5.5 hours
1352
2007Portal is introduced: Featuring complicated puzzles, a science fiction setting, and a passive-aggressive robot named GlaDOS, Portal is designed by Valve Entertainment.
1353
2007Checkers is Solved: created a checkers program called “CHINOOK”, which played successfully in several man-machine competitions.
1354
2007Dropbox is founded: cloud-based service used for convenient storage and access to files: upload files via the web to Dropbox’s vast server farms: instantly access them on any of their devices or computers
1355
2007First 1 TB hard disk drive (HDD): Hitachi Deskstar 7K1000 used five 3.5-inch 200 GB platters and rotated at 7,200 RPM: reater storage capacity by a factor of 300,000 and was thousands of times smaller.
1356
2007Hulu is founded: Though only available in the US, Hulu also brought series from around the world to the service, as well as producing original content.
1357
2007Nvidia releases Cuda GPU: Computer Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) was a concept that allowed for GPUs to do some of the functions usually reserved for the Central Processing Unit (CPU)
1358
2007Scratch is publicly released: Its interface allowed novice users to stack and organize block commands to write programs. Scratch has millions of users worldwide and is available in more than 40 languages.
1359
2007The Amazon Kindle is released: first to gain a large following among consumers. The first Kindle featured wireless access to content via Amazon.com, along with an SD card slot allowing increased storage.
1360
2007The Apple iPhone is released: a combination of web browser, music player and cell phone - which could download new functionality in the form of "apps" (applications) from the online Apple store: touchscrene
1361
2007ICANN drops .um domain name (US minor outlying islands) for lack of use (Jan)
1362
2007Estonia offers the first online national parliamentary elections on 26-28 Feb
1363
2007ICANN terminates RegisterFly.com's registrar status on 16 Mar (effective 31 Mar)
1364
2007Internet2 traffic in the Northeast US is disrupted on 1 May when a homeless man starts a fire under a Boston bridge causing a fiber break
1365
2007Use of #hashtag proposed by Tweeter user number 1,186, Chris Messina (23 Aug)
1366
2007Internet2's Abilene network is retired (Sep) as the last connections are switched over to the new Level 3 network
1367
2007Internet2 completes US East to West coast span of its 100GB/s network on 9 Oct
1368
2007.asia sunrise period begins in October
1369
2007US$1M+ Domain Sales: Porn.com (9.5M), Computer.com (2.1M), Seniros.com (1.8M), Tandberg.com (1.5M), Scores.com, Vista.com (1.25M), Chinese.com (1.12M), Guy.com (1M), Topix.com (1M)
1370
2007RFC 4824: The Transmission of IP Datagrams over the Semaphore Flag Signaling System (SFSS)
1371
2007Fitbit founded
1372
2007Objet Upgrades 3D Printers to Include 14 Varieties of Hardness That Simulate Different Material Properties in One Object -- Objet introduces the Connex series of 3D printers that enable users to combine two different materials in one print job in a variety of combinations that produce up to fourteen different levels of hardness, texture and shading, with no assembly, creating forms that range from rigid to rubber, dense to hollow and translucent to opaque.
1373
2007Autonomous High-Altitude Refueling: show that high-performance aircraft can easily perform automated refueling from conventional tankers (pilot was on board to set conditions and monitor safety)
1374
2007DARPA Urban Challenge: build an autonomous vehicle capable of driving in traffic, performing complex maneuvers such as merging, passing, parking, and negotiating intersections (6 crossed finish line)
1375
2007Orbital Express: validate the technical feasibility of robotic, autonomous on-orbit refueling and reconfiguration of satellites to support a broad range of future U.S. national security and commercial space programs
1376
2007Sociometric badges created
1377
1378
2008 DEVELOPMENTS
1379
2008WALL-E debuts: about a robot left to clean up Earth after humans abandon a littered and dying home planet.
1380
2008The MacBook Air is released: To reduce its size, the traditional hard drive was replaced with a solid-state disk, the first mass-market computer to do so.
1381
2008NASA tests first deep space communications network modeled on the Internet, using the Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN) software to transmit images to/from science spacecraft 20 million miles above Earth
1382
2008Google's crawler reaches 1 trillion pages, although only a fraction are indexed by the search engine. For comparison, Google's original index had 26 million pages in 1998, and reached 1 billion in 2000
1383
2008The Middle East, India, and other parts of Africa and Asia see a major degradation in Internet service, including outages, after several undersea cables carrying Internet traffic to the region are cut within 1 week
1384
2008IPv6 addresses are added for the first time to 6 of the root zone servers (4 Feb)
1385
2008YouTube becomes unreacheable for a couple of hours after Pakistan Telecom starts an unauthorized announcement of YouTube's subnet prefix (24 Feb)
1386
2008US$1M+ Domain Sales: Fund.com (9.9M), Clothes.com (4.9M), Shopping.de (2.8M), Kredit.de (1.17M), Cruises.co.uk (1.09M), Invest.com (1.01M)
1387
2008RFC 5241: Naming Rights in IETF Protocols
1388
2008RFC 5242: A Generalized Unified Character Code: Western European and CJK Sections
1389
2008New Matrix System Enables 3D Printing with Regular Sheets of Paper Mcor Technologies, founded by Dr. Conor MacCormack and Fintan MacCormack, launches the New Matrix system that adheres A4 sheets of paper together using Helisys LOM technology.
1390
2008RepRap Project Releases Darwin, the First Open-Sourced 3D Printer Hardware This spawns a huge 3D-printing maker community worldwide
1391
2008Shapeways Starts its Online 3D Printing Service Shapeways launches in the Netherlands as a spin-off of Royal Philips Electronics. Using this online 3D printing service, individuals can use a simplified design process made for consumers to make, buy and sell their own products that are then inexpensively printed and delivered.
1392
2008First Usable Prosthetic Created The first usable prosthetic with all its parts, including knee, foot, and socket, is printed in one piece without any assembly required. This development leads to the creation of Bespoke Innovations, Inc. in 2010.
1393
2008User-Created Open-Source Design Flourishes Thingiverse launches a website dedicated to sharing user-generated digital design files, providing primarily open-source hardware design licenses under the GNU General Public License (a Creative Commons License).
1394
2008Topological Data Analysis (TDA) program: spawned a commercial firm, in this case a software firm that remained in business at the posting of this timeline in 2018
1395
2008Commercial augmented reality devices created (Google Glass)
1396
2008"Cybervetting" coined
Berkelaar, B. L. (2008, May). Cybervetting (Potential) Employees: An Emerging Area of Study for Organizational Communication. In annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Online.
1397
1398
2009 DEVELOPMENTS
1399
2009The first commercially available 3-D printer, based on the RepRap concept, was introduced this year. These affordable, “entry-level” products were known as Bfb RapMan 3-D printers
1400
2009Minecraft is introduced: flexible and creative building system for modeling real-world processes or things. Users have built entire computers, cities, and even planets out of Minecraft components.
1401
2009Plants vs. Zombies is released: The game was ported to many different systems, including the iPad, Steam, and PlayStation 3.
1402
2009Bitcoin: use of peer-to-peer networks to generate a “crypto-currency.” In the Bitcoin system, users run software that searches for blocks of data, the discovery of which reward the users with Bitcoins.
1403
2009Cloud-based network-attached storage solutions: servers could automatically back up data to remote servers: designed for data protection, and backup capability it also provided a data recovery solution.
1404
2009IBM's Roadrunner supercomputer is completed: first computer to reach a sustained performance of 1 petaflop (one thousand trillion floating point operations per second): used two different microprocessors.
1405
2009Jaguar Supercomputer at Oak Ridge upgraded: cost more than $100 million to create and ran a variation of the Linux operating system with up to 10 petabytes of storage.
1406
2009The Mobile Web hits the Mass Market: 3G networks for higher speed mobile data had been spreading fast. Smart-phones create a new computing platform that brings mobile Web browsing to a large audience.
1407
2009DNSSEC becomes operational on .gov (28 Feb), .org (2 Jun), .us (15 Dec)
1408
2009.tel registrations begin
1409
2009Bitcoins start being minted
1410
2009US Department of Commerce relaxes control over ICANN, in favor of a multi-national oversight group
1411
2009Domain tasting gets severely curtailed after ICANN raises the 2008-introduced fee for erroneously registered domains from $0.20 to $6.95; domain kiting however conitnues
1412
2009Twitter is asked by the US Government to delay planned maintenance of its service on 15 June as a result of heavy use by Iranian users during unrest in that country
1413
2009.se domains become unreachable for an hour on 12 Oct after an incorrectly configured software update modifies all registrations
1414
2009ICANN opens up applications for internationalized domain names (16 Nov)
1415
2009Crowdfunding becomes a popular means of raising startup funds; Kickstart founded on April 28
1416
2009Emerging Technologies: Location awareness
1417
2009US$1M+ Domain Sales: Insure.com (16M), Toys.com (5.1M), Auction.com (1.7M), Candy.com (3M), Webcam.com (1.02M), Fly.com (1.76M), Call.com (1.1M), Ticket.com (1.53M), Russia.com (1.5M)
1418
2009RFC 5513: IANA Considerations for Three Letter Acronyms
1419
2009RFC 5514: IPv6 over Social Networks
1420
2009Laika Animation Makes First 3D-Printed Animated Movie Laika animation studio uses 3D printing to make the “puppets” (i.e., the animated characters) for Coraline. The heads and hands are 3D printed, then painted by hand.
1421
20093D Printing Gets its First Standard Reference Guide Seventy individuals from around the world meet at the ASTM International Headquarters near Philadelphia, PA, to establish ASTM Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies. This results in the publication of the first standard terminology reference.
1422
2009MakerBot Industries Makes 3D Printing More Accessible for Individuals MakerBot Industries is founded with an open-sourcing model, offering products that are created not with the intent to mass-produce, but rather for individuals. Printers are sold as do-it-yourself kits, requiring only minor soldering.
1423
2009Red Balloon Challenge: explored the roles that the Internet and social networking play in the timely communication, wide-area team-building, and urgent mobilization to solve broad-scope, time-critical problems
1424
2009Uber launchedhttp://uber.com/
1425
2009Commercial wearables created (Fitbit Classic)
1426
2009Open source databases created (Mongo DB)
1427
2009"Gig economy" popularized
1428
1429
2010 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1430
2010Angry Birds becomes top-selling mobile game: As touchscreen-enabled tablets and smartphones proliferate, mobile games became top-sellers.
1431
2010Apple Retina Display: With a screen resolution of up to 400 pixels-per-inch (PPI), Retina displays approached the limit of pixel visibility to the human eye.
1432
2010China's Tianhe supercomputers are operational: peak speed of over a petaflop (one thousand trillion calculations per second): ran solar energy simulations & some of the most complex molecular studies ever
1433
2010First Emily Howell album released: music composition program called Emily Howell: incorporate feedback from listeners to influence its compositions.
1434
2010IBM’s Watson defeats Jeopardy! contestants: analyzing natural language questions and content more accurately and faster than its human counterparts.
1435
2010Reports of the Stuxnet virus surface: The virus attempted to damage uranium enrichment centrifuges used in Iran’s nuclear development program by causing damaging speed variations.
1436
2010The Apple iPad is released: Apps, games, and accessories helped spur the popularity of the iPad
1437
2010Astronaut T.J. Creamer inaugurates the new International Space Station direct link to the Internet (aka Crew Support LAN) with a tweet (22 Jan)
1438
2010A Chinese root DNS server is taken offline after disrupting some services in Chile and US (Mar)
1439
2010Google announces on 22 January that along with 20+ other US companies, it had been the target of a cyber attack originating in China, and on 22 March stops censoring its services in China
1440
2010Google+ service launches in public beta on 28 June; surpasses 10M users in Jul 2011, 100M in Feb 2012, and 400M in Sep 2012
1441
2010Root DNS zone digitally signed (DNSSEC) for first time (15 Jul)
1442
2010Number of registered domain reach 200M (~ Aug)
1443
2010A BGP experiment between RIPE NCC and Duke U results in a partial Internet outage (27 Aug)
1444
2010US Senate authorizes US Dept of Homeland Security to seize domains of sites suspected of piracy (Nov)
1445
2010Myanmar is temporarily taken offline by a denial of service attack (Nov)
1446
2010Verisign announced DNSSEC deployed to .net (10 Dec)
1447
2010Photo-sharing sees a renewal with the launch of social-based services such as Pinterest and Instagram
1448
2010Domain Sales: Poker.org (1M), Flying.com (1.1M), Photo.com (1.25M), Dating.com (1.75M), Slots.com (5.5M), fb.com (8.5M), Zip.com (1.6M), Sex.com (13M)
1449
2010RFC 5841: TCP Option to Denote Packet Mood
1450
2010The Centre for Fine Print Research Is the First to 3D Print Porcelain Based out of England, the Centre patents their system for 3D printing porcelain using the ZCorp 310 Printer.
1451
2010Scott Summit and Kenneth Trauner Found Bespoke Innovations, Inc.: The company creates personalized 3D-printed prosthetics
1452
2010HP signs an agreement with Stratasys and becomes the first large consumer electronics company to manufacture 3D printers.
1453
2010Freshfiber is first company worldwide to exclusively use 3D printing to create consumer products.
1454
2010.MGX, by Materialise, opens the first store exclusively for 3D-printed goods in Brussels.
1455
2010Continuum Fashion and Shapeways create n12, the first ready-to-wear, 3D-printed and fully articulated bikini.
1456
2010High-Altitude LIDAR: High-Altitude LIDAR Operations Experiment (HALOE) provided unprecedented access to high-resolution 3-D geospatial data.
1457
1458
2011 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1459
2011Adobe Creative Cloud is announced as a subscription and cloud-based model of distribution for its major software products. Adobe Acrobat, Illustrator, Dreamweaver, Photoshop, and others.
1460
2011Arab Spring protests spread by social media: Many of these protests were organized or promoted on sites such as Twitter and Facebook, and commentary appearing on popular blogs spread news
1461
2011IBM Sequoia is delivered to Lawrence Livermore Labs: world's fastest supercomputer: studies of human electrophysiology, nuclear weapon simulation, human genome mapping, and global climate change
1462
2011Nest Learning Thermostat is Introduced: allowed for remote access to a user’s home’s thermostat by using a smartphone or tablet: could also send monthly power consumption reports to help save energy bills.
1463
2011Passing of Steve Jobs: Jobs had transformed six different industries: music, animated movies, personal computers, telephones, tablet computing and digital publishing.
1464
2011Siri is Announced: voice-activated personal assistant, Siri could “understand” natural language requests and also adjust the information it retrieved from the web by learning user tendencies and preferences.
1465
2011LinkedIn reaches 100M users (Mar); surpasses 200M in Jan 2013
1466
2011Egypt shuts down its last ISP on 31 Jan and remains offline for two days
1467
2011Number Resource Organization (NRO) announces full depletion of available IPv4 addresses free pool (3 Feb)
1468
2011US Dept of Homeland Defense seizes 10 domains, including mistakenly mooo.com which hosted 84,000 web sites and remain unavailable for two days (11 Feb)
1469
2011Internet traffic in Lybia is significantly curtailed for several days in February
1470
2011APNIC releases last block of IPv4 address in its available pool (14 Apr)
1471
2011.xxx goes live in root servers (15 Apr)
1472
2011First non-Latin TLDs (IDN) are inserted into root zone (5 May): مصر (Egypt), السعودية (AlSaudiah), امارات (Emarat)
1473
2011Millions of .de domains unreachable for hours (12 May)
1474
2011World IPv6 Day is 8 June
1475
2011Number of Internet users reaches 2 Billion (Nov)
1476
2011US$1M+ Domain Sales: DomainName.com (1M in May), Social.com (2.6M in Jul), Box.com (1M in Jul)
1477
2011RFC 5984: Increasing Throughput in IP Networks with ESP-Based Forwarding: ESPBasedForwarding
1478
2011RFC 6214: Adaptation of RFC 1149 for IPv6
1479
2011RFC 6217: Regional Broadcast Using an Atmospheric Link Layer
1480
2011First 3D-Printed Animated Movie in All Color Laika animation studio and Aardman Animations both produce 3Dprinted “puppets” in full color for ParaNorman and The Pirates! Band of Misfits, respectively.
1481
2011Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Patent Expires The expiration of the FDM patent brings technology and information into the public domain that is a catalyst for creativity and open sourcing, building on the momentum created by RepRap and other open-sourcing companies
1482
2011President Barack Obama Announces Advanced Manufacturing Process Partnership (AMP) This national initiative, bringing together industry, universities and the federal government to invest in emerging technologies, aims to increase U.S. competitiveness in manufacturing.
1483
20113D-Printed Dress “One of 50 Best Inventions” TIME Magazine names Iris van Herpen’s first-ever 3D-printed flexible dress as one of the 50 Best Inventions of the year.
1484
2011First 3D-Printed Precious Metal Sterling silver is 3D printed for the first time by Cookson Precious Metals.
1485
2011First 3D-Printed Aircraft Designed at the University of Southampton, the first 3D-printed aircraft is created in just seven days.
1486
2011First 3D-Printed Vehicles: HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Germany, teams with Stratasys to create the world’s first one-person vehicle with a bionic form modeled after a human jaw. The Rapid Racer took 10 days, included 3,600 layers and was made from a 44 MB file.
1487
2011First 3D-Printed Vehicles: Stratasys and Kor Ecologic Inc. co-develop the Urbee hybrid, the world’s first production car ever to have its entire body, including its glass-panel prototypes, 3D printed.
1488
2011First 3D-Printed Vehicles: The European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS) group in England creates the first 3D-printed bicycle, the Airbike, out of nylon that is as strong as steel or aluminum, but only 65% of the weight.
1489
2011“Desert Manufactured” 3D Printing Uses the World’s Most Efficient and Abundant Energy Source, the Sun: Raising questions about the future of manufacturing, Markus Kayser creates the Solar Sinter in the Sahara desert. This machine uses two abundant resources, silica sand and the sun, to harness the sun’s energy into creating 3D-printed objects made of glass (melted and cooled silica sand).
1490
2011Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 (HTV-2): unmanned, rocket-launched, maneuverable aircraft that glides through the Earth’s atmosphere at incredibly fast speeds—Mach 20
1491
2011Radar for UAVs: Vehicle and Dismount Exploitation Radar (VADER) program to design and deploy a radar system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or small manned aircraft.
1492
2011Siri Created - Commercial virtual assistants createdhttps://www.apple.com/siri/
1493
2011Social media influencer coined
1494
1495
2012 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1496
2012Facebook Acquires Instagram: Instagram, an image-sharing and social networking application, is purchased by Facebook for nearly $1 billion.
1497
2012Raspberry Pi, a credit-card-size single board computer, is released as a tool to promote science education: credit card-sized computer features ease of use and simplicity: popular with students and hobbyists.
1498
2012ICANN begins accepting applications for new generic top-level domains (gTLDs) on 12 Jan
1499
2012Facebook reaches 1 billion monthly active users (604M mobile) on 14 Sep @ 12:50pm PT, with 581M daily on average
1500
2012Amazon becomes the largest hosting location by number of web-facing computers (118k), knocking China Telecom from first place (116k)
1501
2012Canadian online sports gambling company Bodog has its .com domain name ceased by US Dept of Homeland Security, causing fear among international businesses
1502
2012World IPv6 Launch is 6 June
1503
2012Minitel shuts down at the end of June
1504
2012GoDaddy service goes down, making millions of sites inaccessible for several hours (10 Sep)
1505
2012RIPE NCC distributes last blocks of IPv4 address space from available pool (14 Sep)
1506
2012Twitter surpasses 200M active users (Dec), and 500M tweets per day (Oct)
1507
2012NASA's Curiosity Rover checks-in on FourSquare from Mars (3 Oct)
1508
2012PKNIC is hacked and 284 Pakistani web sites, including apple.pk and google.pk, appear defaced (24 Nov)
1509
2012Syria is disconnected from the Internet for two days (29 Nov - 1 Dec)
1510
2012"Gangnam Style" becomes the first YouTube video to reach 1 billion views (21 Dec)
1511
2012US$1M+ Domain Sales: PersonalLoans.com (1M in Feb), GiftCard.com (4M in Oct), Investing.com (2.45M in Dec)
1512
2012RFC 6592: The Null Packet
1513
2012RFC 6593: Service Undiscovery Using Hide-and-Go-Seek for the Domain Pseudonym System (DPS)
1514
2012First 3D-Printed Jaw LayerWise builds the world’s first 3D-printed jaw implant for an 83-yearold patient in the Netherlands. The implant helps promote the growth of new bone tissue.
1515
20123D-Printed Affordable Housing Appears on the Horizon Dr. Behrokh Khoshnevis at the University of Southern California creates an automated construction technology, Contour Crafting, that has the potential to build an entire housing unit in one day for a quarter of the costs of manual construction methods. This technology also reduces environmental impact by creating less waste and emission pollution.
1516
2012First 3D-Printed Gun The “Liberator” pistol is created by Cody Wilson, a Texas law student. Wilson shares his blueprints for making the gun on the Internet, causing a controversy and leads to Wilson being dubbed one of the “15 Most Dangerous People in the World” by Wired Magazine.
1517
20123D-Printed Candy and Gold First 3D chocolate printer, the Choc Creator, is made commercially available. Gold is 3D printed for the first time by Cookson Precious Metals.
1518
2012Stratasys Creates 3D-Printed “Magic Arms” These arms, fully articulated with custom-molded parts, give a two-year-old child the use of her limbs.
1519
20123D Precision Engineering Meets Footwear A Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)-crafted cleat is the first 3D-printed shoe plate designed for high-performance football athletes. Through proprietary material selection, Nike was able to prototype a fully functional plate and traction system at a fraction of the time and weight of traditional manufacturing techniques.
1520
2012Intrachip/Interchip Enhanced Cooling (ICECool) The increased density of electronic components and subsystems in military electronic systems exacerbates the thermal management challenges facing engineers.
1521
2012Oculus Rift virtual reality headsethttps://www.oculus.com/rift/
1522
1523
2013 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1524
2013Samsung Galaxy Gear was released onto the market as a wearable smartwatch in 2013. This product is Android-based and serves as a companion for the Samsung line of Galaxy smartphones.
1525
2013Former CIA employee and NSA contractor Edward Snowden copied hundreds of thousands of documents from his workplace covering dozens of confidential US national security programs.
1526
2013Microsoft had not released a new version of the Xbox for almost eight years when it introduces the Xbox One with the Kinect movement-based user interface,.
1527
2013The PlayStation 4 (PS4) - Sony chose AMD's x86-64 Accelerated Processing Unit to serve as both central processing unit and graphics processing unit, built together onto on a single chip.
1528
2013Stable Release of Microsoft Office 365: Word, Excel, OneNote, PowerPoint, Outlook, Access, and Publisher monthly or annual subscription: Also 1 TB of cloud storage on Microsoft’s One Drive .
1529
2013Netflix and YouTube account for over 50% of Internet traffic measured by bytes
1530
2013New gTLDs added to domain name root zone (24 Oct): شبكة (web), онлайн (online), сайт (site), and 游戏 (game)
1531
2013US National Security Agency (NSA) is revealed to be collecting considerable more Internet data than previously thought, including encrypted information from major Internet sites
1532
2013Yahoo hacked with credentials of 3 billion accounts stolen, not discovered until years later
1533
2013US$1M+ Domain Sales: ig.com (4.7M in Sep), 114.com (2.1M in Jul), ebet.com (1.35M in Oct), kk.com (2.4M in Nov)
1534
2013RFC 6919: Further Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels
1535
2013RFC 6921: Design Considerations for Faster-Than-Light (FTL) Communication
1536
2013The number of Internet hosts surpass 1billion
1537
2013Planning 3D-Printed Lunar Habitations of the Future Foster and Partners, along with several smaller firms, teams with the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop a lunar habitation using 3Dprinted parts transported by rockets, as well as 3D-printed materials using the moon’s own soil. Destined for the moon’s south pole, the structures would protect inhabitants from meteorites, gamma radiation and temperature fluctuations.
1538
20133D Printing Saves Lives Baby’s life is saved with a groundbreaking 3D-printed splint created at the University of Michigan. The splint, made of biological material, opened up the child’s lungs and allowed him to breathe freely.
1539
2013NASA Embraces 3D Printing NASA announces a plan to explore the possibility of 3D printing food in space for astronauts. At the same time, the organization announces the development of a 3D printer, to be launched in 2014, which can make tools on demand, reducing the need to bring unnecessary supplies into space. NASA also successfully tests the first 3D-printed rocket fuel injector.
1540
2013Blast Gauge: Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) developed the Blast Gauge, a small device worn by warfighters to measure blast exposure and cue medics for initial response.
1541
2013Debut of Atlas Robot: disaster-response robot: A tether connected the robot to both an off-board power supply and computer through which a human operator issued commands.
1542
2013LS3 Pack Mule: four-legged robot: (LS3), to integrate with squads of Marines or Soldiers. LS3 demonstrated that a highly mobile, semi-autonomous legged robot could carry 400 lbs of a squad’s load
1543
2013STARnet Established: DARPA and key companies from the semiconductor and defense industries established the Semiconductor Technology Advanced Research Network, or STARnet.
1544
2013World-record power output levels using silicon-based technologies for millimeter-wave power amplifiers. RF power amplifiers are used to boost power levels for more reliable distance transmission of signals.
1545
2013Augmented reality wearables created (Google Glass)
1546
2013Slack launchedhttps://slack.com/
1547
1548
2014 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1549
2014Samsung’s SmartThings technology was showcased at the International Consumer Electronics Show
1550
2014Silicon Valley TV series: film and television producers have begun to create content focusing on tech workers and start-up business culture.
1551
2014Apple Pay is Released: device’s near field communications (NFC) interface, Passbook app, and Apple’s Touch ID system worked in tandem with point-of-sale systems in retail outlets to complete transactions.
1552
2014Gamergate: Several prominent women in gaming, began receiving death threats on social media, while others experienced various forms of abuse, including releasing personal information online, or “doxxing.”
1553
2014HTML 5 is announced as the successor to HTML 4: improvements for multimedia, such as simplifying the embedding of content such as streaming video and games into web pages.
1554
2014Heartbleed bug is uncovered as a dangerous security flaw in the code base of the OpenSSL cryptographic software library: OSSL protected the world’s web servers: 20% were found to be vulnerable to attack.
1555
2014Sony Hack: Sony suffers one of the largest hacks in corporate history, with hackers claiming to have accessed more than a hundred terabytes of confidential information (North Korean comedy: The Interview)
1556
2014The University of Michigan Micro Mote (M3) is the smallest computer in the world at the time of its completion: Motes are also known as “smart dust,".
1557
2014Most of the Internet traffic in China is redirected to US-based Dynamic Internet Technology for over an hour (21 Jan)
1558
2014Registration begins for the first few of hundreds new Latin gTLDs, including .guru, .bike, .clothing, .holdings, .ventures, .singles, and .plumbing (29 Jan)
1559
2014.py ccTLD hacked -- full whois registry data leaked and domains redirected (e.g., google.com.py) (20 Feb)
1560
2014The number of Web servers surpass 1billion
1561
2014ICANN announces that it has begun allocating the remaining IPv4 addresses to the five regional Internet registries after LACNIC's supply dropped to below 8 million (20 May)
1562
2014After an EU court ruling requiring Google to honor "requests to be forgotten", 12,000 requests are submitted in the first day (30 May)
1563
2014Many networks are taken offline due to a Verizon glitch introducing thousands of new prefixes into the global routing table, causing popular but unpatched Cisco routers to reach their 512,000 limit and crash
1564
2014RFC 7168: The Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol for Tea Efflux Appliances (HTCPCP-TEA)
1565
2014RFC 7169: The NSA (No Secrecy Afforded) Certificate Extension
1566
2014Hacks of the Year: Sony Pictures, Home Depot, JP Morgan, eBay
1567
2014Bugs of the year: Heartbleed (Dec 2011 - 7 Apr), Poodle (Nov 1996 - 14 Oct), Shellshock (Sep 1989 - 24 Sep)
1568
2014ICANN domain auction sales (US$): .tech (6.76M), .realty (5.59M), .salon (5.1M), .buy (4.6M), .mls (3.359M), .baby (3.09M), .vip (3M), .spot (2.2M)
1569
2014US$1M+ Domain Sales: mm.com (1.2M in Jul), sex.xxx (3M in Jun), medicare.com (4.8M in May), mi.com (3.6M in Apr), 37.com (1.96M in Mar), youxi.com (2.43M in Mar), whisky.com (3.1M in Jan)
1570
2014DARPA in 2014 created its Biological Technologies Office (BTO), which has enabled a new level of momentum for DARPA’s portfolio of innovative, biology-based programs.
1571
2014Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance (EXACTO): successful live-fire tests demonstrating in-flight guidance of .50-caliber bullets: hit targets that were offset from where the sniper rifle was aimed.
1572
2014Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM): ability to discriminate between targets and conduct tactical engagements from extended ranges.
1573
2014Memex program: state of the art in content indexing and web searching on the Internet: Memex quickly proved its value in efforts to counter human trafficking.
1574
2014Spectrum Challenge Finals: competition designed to encourage development of programmable radios that can deliver high-priority transmissions in congested and contested spectrum environments.
1575
2014Averaging the dates of the four key virtual assistants (Siri-2011, Alexa-2014, Cortana-2015, and Google Assistant-2016) = Average [[2014]]N/A - See Reference Points
1576
2014Averaging the dates of the two key commercial virtual reality headsets (Oculus Rift-2012 and HTC Vive-2016) = Average [[2014]]N/A - See Reference Points
1577
2014Amazon Alexa Created - Commercial virtual assistants created
1578
2014"Telepressure" coined
1579
1580
2015 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1581
2015Apple’s HomeKit slated to launch
1582
2015Apple Watch: incorporating a version of Apple's iOS operating system, as well as sensors for environmental and health monitoring: Designed to be incorporated into the Apple environment.
1583
2015FCC issues Net Neutrality decision: one of the founding principles of the internet: ISPs were required to follow FCC guidelines that include net neutrality as a principle.
1584
2015Gates Joins Musk, Hawking in Expressing Fear of AI: thoughts on the potentially dangerous effects and unintended consequences of artificial intelligence on human civilization.
1585
2015A Georgian scavenging for copper cuts off much of the Internet in neighbouring Armenia when her spade slices a buried cable (28 Mar)
1586
2015Largest TLDs by zone size as of 2Q: .com, .tk, .de, .net, .cn, .uk, .org, .ru, .nl, .info
1587
2015Largest ccTLDs by zone size as of 2Q: .tk, .de, .cn, .uk, .ru, .nl, .eu, .br, .au, .fr
1588
2015HTTP header "X-Clacks-Overhead: GNU Terry Pratchett" is served by ~84,000 web sites (Jun) 3 months after Sir Pratchett's death
1589
2015Let's Encrypt holds key ceremony to generate the root key and intermediary certificates for its free certificate authority (4 Jun) and issues the first certificate for helloworld.letsencrypt.org on 14 Sep
1590
2015U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) net neutrality rule takes effect (12 Jun)
1591
2015ARIN activates IPv4 Unmet Requests policy, rejecting an IPv4 block request for the first time (1 Jul). ARIN's free pool depletes on 24 Sep.
1592
2015Out of 100 billion monthly Google searches, those from mobile devices surpass desktops for the first time
1593
20151 billion users (1 in 7 people on Earth) access Facebook on a single day (24 Aug)
1594
2015IANA designates .onion a special use domain for anonymous hidden services on the Tor network (9 Sep)
1595
2015WordPress powers 25% of web sites as of early November
1596
2015Most of the internal Internet connectivity in Azerbaijan is lost as a result of a fire in a telecommunications facility (16 Nov)
1597
2015RFC 7511: Scenic Routing for IPv6
1598
2015RFC 7514: Really Explicit Congestion Notification (RECN)
1599
2015Hacks of the Year: US Office of Personnel Management, Ashley Madison, Anthem, T-Mobile, IRS
1600
2015ICANN domain auction sales (US$): .app (25M), .hotels (2.2M), .ping (1.5M)
1601
2015US$1M+ Domain Sales: Porno.com (8.8M in Feb), PX.com (1M in Sep), 588.com (1M in Sep)
1602
2015CHIKV Challenge: To accelerate the development of new infectious disease forecasting methods, DARPA launched its CHIKV Challenge.
1603
2015DARPA Robotics Challenge: competition of robot systems and software teams vying to develop robots capable of assisting humans in responding to natural and man-made disasters
1604
2015Cortana Created - Commercial virtual assistants created
1605
1606
2016 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1607
2016Internet Society celebrates 25th anniversary (1 Jan)
1608
2016Let's Encrypt issues millionth certificate (8 Mar), 2M (21 Apr), 10M (9 Sep), 20M (27 Nov)
1609
2016ICANN introduces 1000th gTLD from 2012 application window (25 May)
1610
2016United Nations Human Rights Council adopts a resolution on the promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet (27 Jun)
1611
2016A California District Court Judge grants a motion for what is thought to be the first permitted serving of a lawsuit via Twitter (30 Sep)
1612
2016DDoS attacks wreak havoc across the Internet with some topping over 1Tbps in bandwidth and powered by over 150,000 hacked Internet devices
1613
2016Several prominent Internet sites become unreacheable as domain infrastructure provider Dyn is knocked offline by a DDoS attack (21 Oct)
1614
2016IPv6 reaches 10% deployment globally, and becomes the dominant (>50%) Internet protocol for US mobile networks
1615
2016Coordination and management of the Internet's unique identifiers transition to the private sector as the IANA contract between ICANN and the US Dept of Commerce's NTIA expires (1 Oct)
1616
2016Yahoo discloses 500 million accounts compromised in 2014 (22 Sep) and that 1 billion accounts were compromised in Aug 2013 (14 Dec)
1617
2016.cn surpasses .tk in ccTLD zone size
1618
2016Annual global IP traffic surpasses 1 zettabyte
1619
2016US$1M+ Domain Sales: HG.com (3.7M in Nov), Vivo.com (2.1M in Nov), Jade.com (1.25M in Jul), LA.com (1.2M in May)
1620
2016Cyber Grand Challenge: professional bug hunters, security coders, and other security pros work endless hours, searching millions of lines of code to find and fix vulnerabilities that others can exploit.
1621
2016SIGMA: develop and test low-cost, high-efficiency radiation sensors that detect gamma and neutron radiation and to network them via smartphones: real-time awareness of potential nuclear and radiological...
1622
2016Spectrum Collaboration Challenge: goal of ensuring that the exponentially growing number of military and civilian wireless devices will have full access to the increasingly crowded electromagnetic spectrum.
1623
2016SST Transition: Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) from an Agency-led design and construction program to ownership and operation by U.S. Air Force Space Command (AFSPC)
1624
2016HTC Vive virtual reality headset??????????????????????????
1625
2016Google Virtual Assistant Created - Commercial virtual assistants createdhttps://assistant.google.com/
1626
1627
1628
2017 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS UPDATE))
1629
2017IETF enters into an agreement with the National Library of Sweden for archival of RFC series in NLS' bunker (16 Jan)
1630
2017Dozens of politically motivated Internet shutdowns occur globally including in Cameroon (Jan-Apr), Togo (Sep), and Equatorial Guinea (Nov)
1631
2017Average volume of encrypted traffic on Firefox surpasses the average unencrypted volume (Feb) and reaches 66% by year end
1632
2017dmoz.org, an early web directory, shuts down after 19 years (17 Mar)
1633
2017AfriNIC is the last Regional Internet Registry to run out of IPv4 addresses (Apr)
1634
2017WannaCry ransomware attack spreads to over 150 countries (12 May)
1635
2017IPv6 connectivity advertised by 9M domain names and 23% of all networks
1636
2017Let's Encrypt reaches 100M certificates milestone (28 Jun)
1637
2017A security researcher is able to "hijack" the .io TLD by registering expired nameserver domain names (5 Jul)
1638
2017W3C announced publication of Encrypted Media Extensions, a web-based digital-rights management capability, resulting in the first appeal request in its history (6 Jul)
1639
2017Equifax credit agency discovers a breach of its systems that resulted in the disclosure of sensitive information on 145M+ people (29 Jul)
1640
2017Facebook and other social media services are found to have been used by foreign governments to influence elections in the U.S. and other countries
1641
2017Google leaks 160,000 BGP routes in Chicago with 25,000+ of them for NTT OCN greatly impacting Internet traffic in Japan (25 Aug)
1642
2017Hurricanes knock out Internet service to Puerto Rico and other Caribbean islands for extended periods (Aug-Sep)
1643
2017Russia announces plans to develop a backup DNS system for use by BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) to be implemented within one year
1644
2017Zimbabwe loses most of its Internet access for several hours as a result of simultaneous outages at two main international providers, including a tractor fiber cut in South Africa (5 Dec)
1645
2017IP addresses for Google, Facebook, Apple, and others, are re-routed to Russian provider Megafon when one of its transit providers leak route data to the global Internet (12 Dec)
1646
2017U.S. FCC votes to repeal net neutrality (14 Dec)
1647
2017AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) and CompuServe Forums cease service after 20+ years (15 Dec)
1648
2017U.S. Library of Congress announces it will cease archiving every tweet at year end
1649
2017Facebook reaches 2 billion active monthly users, YouTube 1.5B, WhatsApp 1.2B, WeChat 889M, Instagram 700M, Twitter 330M
1650
2017Number of domain name registrations across all TLDs surpasses 330M, with 130M in .com, 145M across ccTLDs, and 21M across new gTLDs, as of 3Q
1651
2017Largest TLDs by zone size as of 3Q: .com, .cn, .tk, .de, .net, .uk, .org, .ru, .info, .nl
1652
2017Largest ccTLDs by zone size as of 3Q: .cn, .tk, .de, .uk, .ru, .nl, .br, .eu, .au, .fr
1653
2017Largest new global TLD (ngTLDs) as of 3Q: .xyz, .loan, .top, .win, .club, .online, .vip, .wang, .bid, .site
1654
2017RFC 8135: Complex Addressing in IPv6
1655
2017RFC 8136: Additional Transition Functionality for IPv6
1656
2017RFC 8140: The Arte of ASCII: Or, An True and Accurate Representation of an Menagerie of Thynges Fabulous and Wonderful in Ye Forme of Character
1657
2017US$1M+ Domain Sales: Fly.com (2.89M in May), ETH.com (2M in Oct), Freedom.com (2M in May), 01.com (1.82M in Feb), 20.com (1.75M in Apr), MyWorld.com (1.2M in Oct)
1658
2017Bay Area SDR Hackfest: DARPA embarked on a year-long effort to build an engaged community of engineers and scientists operating within relevant technical areas -- Hackers working together...
1659
2017Electronics Resurgence Initiative: ensure far-reaching improvements in electronics performance by way of miniaturizing transistors and other components and increasing the complexity of component integration.
1660
2017Joint University Microelectronics Program (JUMP): goal is to catalyze innovations for increasing the performance, efficiency, and overall capabilities of broad classes of electronics systems
1661
2017Service Academies Swarm Challenge: To help make effective swarm tactics with small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other robots a reality (offensive and defensive tactics for swarms of small UAVs.)
1662
2017Microchip RFIDs used in business
1663
1664
2018 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS MAJOR UPDATE))
1665
2018DARPA took its Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV) program to one of the best finish lines the Agency knows of—an official transfer of a technology (Sea-Hunter)
1666
2018Wallmart Pattents New "Listening to the Frontend" Technology for auditory survailance ((Concerns about use // creep from telling how long lines are and how quick an individual is moving, to punnishment for XYZ))?????????????????????????
1667
2018
1668
1669
2019 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS MAJOR UPDATE))
1670
2019DARPA Spectrum Collaboration Challenge - 3 year challenge that had its finalle in October 2019 (Team GatorWingss won first, Zylinium Second, and a start-up specializing in AI in Third
1671
2019Oculus Quest WIRELESS all-in-one virtual reality headset and touch controlershttps://www.oculus.com/quest/
1672
2019
1673
2019
1674
1675
2020 DEVELOPMENTS ((NEEDS MAJOR UPDATE))
1676
2020
1677
2020
1678
2020